Long-term synaptic plasticity is thought to provide the substrate for adaptive computation in brain circuits but very little is known about its spatiotemporal organization. Here, we combined multi-spot two-photon laser microscopy in rat cerebellar slices with realistic modeling to map the distribution of plasticity in multi-neuronal units of the cerebellar granular layer. The units, composed by ~300 neurons activated by ~50 mossy fiber glomeruli, showed long-term potentiation concentrated in the core and long-term depression in the periphery. This plasticity was effectively accounted for by an NMDA receptor and calcium-dependent induction rule and was regulated by the inhibitory Golgi cell loops. Long-term synaptic plasticity created effective spatial filters tuning the time-delay and gain of spike retransmission at the cerebellum input stage and provided a plausible basis for the spatiotemporal recoding of input spike patterns anticipated by the motor learning theory.