Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is reportedly more common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphomas (ARL). We describe factors and outcomes associated with CNS involvement at baseline (CNSB) and relapse (CNSR) in 886 patients with newly diagnosed ARL. Of 886 patients, 800 received either intrathecal (IT) therapy for CNSB or IT prophylaxis. CNSB was found in 13%. CNSB was not associated with reduced overall survival (OS). There was no difference in the prevalence of CNSB between the pre-combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and cART eras. 5·3% of patients experienced CNSR at a median of 4·2 months after diagnosis (12% if CNSB; 4% if not). Median OS after CNSR was 1·6 months. On multivariate analysis, only CNSB [hazard ratio (HR) 3·68, P = 0·005] and complete response to initial therapy (HR 0·14, P R. When restricted to patients without CNSB, IT CNS prophylaxis with 3 vs. 1 agent did not significantly impact the risk of CNSR. Despite IT CNS prophylaxis, 5% of patients experienced CNSR. Our data confirms that CNSR in ARL occurs early and has a poor outcome. Complete response to initial therapy was associated with a reduced frequency of CNSR. Although CNSB conferred an increased risk for CNSR, it did not impact OS.
- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- AIDS-related lymphoma
- central nervous system relapse
- non-Hodgkin lymphoma
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