Cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's biomarker profiles in CNS infections

Jan Jessen Krut, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Paola Cinque, Lars Hagberg, Richard W. Price, Marie Studahl, Magnus Gisslén

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased beta amyloid (Aβ1-42), increased total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau, respectively), which is a useful diagnostic tool and gives insight in the pathogenesis of AD. It is of importance to study how these biomarkers react in other CNS diseases; therefore, we decided to analyse amyloid and tau biomarkers in different CNS infections. We also included analysis of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and -β). CSF Aβ1-42, sAPPα and -β, t-tau and p-tau were analysed in bacterial meningitis (n = 12), Lyme neuroborreliosis (n = 13), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (n = 10), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 21), AD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 42). Concurrent with AD, Aβ1-42 was decreased in all groups except neuroborreliosis compared to controls. HSV-1 encephalitis, bacterial meningitis and HAD showed lower concentrations of sAPPα and -β compared to AD. T-tau was increased in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to all other groups. P-tau was higher in AD and HSV-1 encephalitis compared to bacterial meningitis, HAD and control. Decreased CSF Aβ1-42, sAPPα and -β in various CNS infections imply an effect of neuroinflammation on amyloid metabolism which is similar in regard to AD concerning Aβ1-42, but differs concerning sAPPα and -β. These results clearly indicate different pathologic pathways in AD and infectious CNS disease and may provide help in the differential biomarker diagnostics. Increased p-tau in HSV-1 encephalitis probably reflect acute neuronal damage and necrosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-626
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neurology
Volume260
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

Keywords

  • Amyloid
  • Bacterial infections
  • Central nervous system
  • Herpes encephalitis
  • HIV-associated dementia (MesH term AIDS dementia complex)
  • Tau protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

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