Co-existence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a frequent finding, thus a common pathophysiological basis between AD and NPH has been postulated. We measured CSF amyloid-β 42 (Aβ 42 ), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) concentrations in a sample of 294 patients with different types of dementia and 32 subjects without dementia. We then compared scores on neuropsychological tests of NPH patients with pathological and normal CSF Aβ 42 values. Aβ 42 levels were significantly lower in NPH than in control patients, with no significant differences between AD and NPH. On the contrary, t-tau and p-tau levels were significantly lower in NPH than in AD, with no differences between NPH and controls. NPH patients with pathological Aβ 42 levels did not perform worse than NPH patients with normal Aβ 42 levels in any cognitive domains. Our data seem to support the hypothesis of amyloid accumulation in brains of NPH patients. Nevertheless, amyloid does not seem to play a pathogenetic role in the development of cognitive deficits in NPH. © 2017 - IOS Press and the authors.