Changes in Panayiotopoulos syndrome over time

Giuseppe Capovilla, Pasquale Striano, Francesca Beccaria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In its first description (1989), Panayiotopoulos syndrome was defined as an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome with an excellent prognosis, characterized by a clinical ictal triad of nocturnal seizures, tonic deviation of the eyes, and vomiting. The electroencephalographic and clinical features of this condition were highly suggestive of occipital lobe involvement. Subsequently, the concept of this benign age-related focal epilepsy has been expanded over the years, including a wider and larger spectrum of seizure manifestations far beyond the occipital manifestations, and for which the eponym of Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) has been adopted. However, many theoretical and practical points, including diagnostic, genetic, and pathophysiologic issues remain still unresolved for PS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-48
Number of pages4
Issue numberSUPPL. 5
Publication statusPublished - May 2009


  • Focal epilepsy
  • Idiopathic epilepsy
  • Occipital epilepsy
  • Panayiotopoulos syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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