Bone infection, whether acute or chronic, is a difficult-to-treat condition that may result from a large number of pathogens, often including multi-resistant strains. Bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG-S53P4) has been shown to inhibit bacterial growth and bacterial biofilm formation in vitro. The bacterial growth-inhibiting properties of BAG-S53P4 stem partly from the release of ions (sodium, calcium, phosphate, and silicate) in aqueous conditions and the elevation of pH and osmotic pressure in the environment. The use of BAG-S53P4 in head and neck surgery to treat chronically infected sinus and mastoid cavities has shown excellent results. More recently, investigations of the use of BAG-S53P4 in treating chronic bone infections in orthopaedics and trauma have also yielded promising results. To date, bioactive glass is the only medical device specifically approved for the treatment of bone defects in osteomyelitis without requiring the application of local antibiotics.