Characterization of drug-resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from drug-naive and ARV-treated patients in Bulgaria

Maria Mercedes Santoro, Massimo Ciccozzi, Claudia Alteri, Stefania Montieri, Ivailo Alexiev, Iordanka Dimova, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Danail Beshkov, Giovanni Rezza, Carlo Federico Perno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Little information is available about the prevalence of resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors of HIV-1, after the introduction of antiretroviral treatment in Bulgaria. To fill this gap, we analyzed 80 plasma samples from HIV-1-infected Bulgarian patients, 22 naive at antiretroviral treatment (ARV) and 58 ARV experienced. The subtypes B and A resulted in the two most prevalent (41 patients and 18 patients, respectively). The proportion of subtype B among naive and treated patients was similar in each group (57% vs. 47%, p = 0.62), while a major proportion of subtypes A was present in drug-naive patients rather than in treated patients [8/22 (36.4%) vs. 10/58 (17.2%), p = 0.08]. Two (9.1%) naive patients and 40 (70.1%) drug-experienced patients had viruses carrying at least one mutation conferring resistance to ARV drugs. Of 57 patients having experience with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), 32 (56.1%) had NRTI resistance mutations; 8/14 (57.2%) patients having experience with non-NRTI (NNRTI) had viruses carrying NNRTI resistance mutations; and 21/46 (45.7%) patients having experience with protease inhibitors (PI) had PI resistance mutations. The commonest resistance mutations resulted in the NRTI mutation M184V (42.1%) and the PI mutation L90M (24.1%). In conclusion, due to the detection of the substantial transmission of resistant variants to newly infected individuals, continuous surveillance is required, since greater access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) will be expected in Bulgaria. Furthermore, surveillance of PR and RT sequences is also convenient to monitor the introduction of nonsubtype B HIV-1 strains in Bulgaria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1138
Number of pages6
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume24
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

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