The 3′ end of the apo B gene is highly polymorphic. Two point mutations in the coding sequence of the gene create EcoRI (E+, E-) and XbaI (X+, X-) RFLPs. The two loci are in random association and the frequency of the four haplotypes, E+X+, E+X-, E-X+ and E-X- in the normolipidaemic population are 0.68, 0.30, 0.02 and 0.00, respectively. Although the polymorphic nucleotide underlying the EcoRI RFLP creates an amino acid substitution in the apo B protein (Glu → Lys) in a region close to a putative LDL-receptor recognition site(s), we find no statistically significant difference in the frequency of the apo BGlu and apo BLys alleles in hyperlipidaemic patients (familial hypercholesterolaemia, type IIA with no tendon xanthomas, IIB and probably IV) and the normolipidaemic population. In contrast, we confirm previous findings, that the X+ allele is in linkage disequilibrium with a genetic locus that predisposes to the development of higher fasting plasma triglyceride levels than the X- allele. We have characterized a highly polymorphic region immediately 3′ to the apo B gene. At least 5 alleles of this locus exist in the population and our family studies show it should be an extremely informative locus to use in studies where polymorphic or mutant apo B alleles are suspected to underly certain forms of familial hyperlipidaemia. DNA sequence analysis of this highly polymorphic locus shows that the variation is entirely attributable to the number of times the simple repeating sequence 5′-TTTATAATTAAAATATTTATAATTAAATAT-3′ is present.
- Apo B genetic markers
- Hypervariable region
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine