Characterization of XR-RV3 GafChromic® films in standard laboratory and in clinical conditions and means to evaluate uncertainties and reduce errors

J. Farah, A. Trianni, O. Ciraj-Bjelac, I. Clairand, C. De Angelis, S. Delle Canne, L. Hadid, C. Huet, H. Jarvinen, A. Negri, L. Novák, M. Pinto, T. Siiskonen, M. J. Waryn, [No Value] Knežević

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To investigate the optimal use of XR-RV3 GafChromic® films to assess patient skin dose in interventional radiology while addressing the means to reduce uncertainties in dose assessment. Methods: XR-Type R GafChromic films have been shown to represent the most efficient and suitable solution to determine patient skin dose in interventional procedures. As film dosimetry can be associated with high uncertainty, this paper presents the EURADOS WG 12 initiative to carry out a comprehensive study of film characteristics with a multisite approach. The considered sources of uncertainties include scanner, film, and fitting-related errors. The work focused on studying film behavior with clinical high-dose-rate pulsed beams (previously unavailable in the literature) together with reference standard laboratory beams. Results: First, the performance analysis of six different scanner models has shown that scan uniformity perpendicular to the lamp motion axis and that long term stability are the main sources of scanner-related uncertainties. These could induce errors of up to 7% on the film readings unless regularly checked and corrected. Typically, scan uniformity correction matrices and reading normalization to the scanner-specific and daily background reading should be done. In addition, the analysis on multiple film batches has shown that XR-RV3 films have generally good uniformity within one batch (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4211-4226
Number of pages16
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2015


  • film dosimetry uncertainties
  • interventional procedures
  • skin dose assessment
  • XR-RV3 GafChromic films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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