Checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma and early phase development in solid tumors: What's the future?

Paolo A. Ascierto, Grant A. McArthur

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review


Anti-programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand (L)-1 checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the therapy of several cancers. Immunotherapy of cancer can offer long-term durable benefit to patients, is active regardless of tumour histology, has a unique immune-related safety profile, and can be used in combination with other cancer treatments. In addition, recent research has shown that immune-based therapy can be used as adjuvant therapy, that outcomes may be influenced by dose, and that clinical activity is observed in patients with brain metastases. Despite our increased understanding of these agents, there are still several important questions that need to be answered. These include strategies to overcome primary and acquired resistance, the influence of mutational status on treatment outcomes, the optimal duration of treatment, and the need to identify novel combination regimens that offer increased anti-tumour potency and/or reduced toxicity. Here we review recent developments in these areas, with particular focus on new data reported at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number173
JournalJournal of Translational Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 8 2017


  • Anti-PD-1
  • Anti-PD-L1
  • Combination therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Melanoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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