The development of resistance and progressive disease after treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors is becoming a controversial issue. We investigated the experimental conditions that cause multireceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) to augment metastasis and whether opportune combinations with chemotherapy could counteract this effect. The renal Renca-luc tumor was transplanted orthotopically in the kidney of Balb/c mice, which then were or were not nephrectomized. The Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) was transplanted in the tibial muscle of C57/Bl6 mice. Treatment with the RTKI sunitinib started at different stages of tumor progression, mimicking neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings. Combination studies with paclitaxel, doxorubicin, cisplatin, gemcitabine, and topotecan were done on the LLC model, using opportune regimens. In a neoadjuvant setting, sunitinib inhibited Renca-luc tumor growth, prolonging survival despite an increase in lung metastasis; treatment after primary tumor surgery (adjuvant setting) or on established metastasis prolonged survival and decreased metastasis. Sunitinib increased lung metastasis from mice bearing early-stage LLC, but did not affect established metastases (no acceleration) from advanced tumors. Combinations with doxorubicin, topotecan, gemcitabine, but not cisplatin and paclitaxel, counteracted the increase in metastasis from LLC, partly reflecting their antitumor activity. Histology analysis after sunitinib confirmed tumor vascular changes and increased hypoxia. Topotecan at suboptimal daily doses reduced sunitinib-related metastasis, reducing tumor hypoxia. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as sunitinib, can have adverse malignant effects mainly in the neoadjuvant setting. The addition of chemotherapy might influence metastasis, depending on each drug mechanism of action and its regimen of administration. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(10); 2237-47.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research