Objective: Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) with a non-GCT malignant component are a unique and rare phenomenon called teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT). The only published series of patients with TMT treated with chemotherapy comprised 10 patients. We report here our experience in treating 14 patients with TMT. Patients and methods: Sarcoma was identified in 10 of 14 patients, with rhabdomyosarcoma ranking first (n = 4). Other histological types included adenocarcinoma (n = 3) and bronchoalveolar carcinoma (n = 1). Immunohistochemistry was performed to help in identifying the malignant non-GCT component. Results: Primary treatment consisted of surgery alone in 4 patients. The remaining 10 patients received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy with resection of residual masses (n = 5): 4 patients had a complete response and 5 had a partial response. Overall, 9 patients developed a relapse with a median time of 84 mo (range: 6-168). At relapse, 8 patients received a chemotherapy regimen directed to the non-GCT component. Four of these patients achieved a partial response. With a median follow-up of 59 mo (range: 3-180), 4 of 14 patients are alive, including 3 who are disease-free. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is by far the largest reported European series of chemotherapy in TMT. Although TMT has a poor prognosis compared to GCT, its management may be improved by adapted chemotherapy associated with surgical resection of residual masses.
- Germ-cell tumour
- Teratoma with malignant transformation
ASJC Scopus subject areas