Background: One of the directions of modern ophthalmology is toward an odontoiatric model, and new settings of eye care are becoming the standard of care: one day surgery and also office-based therapies. Methods: Retrospective analysis of three tertiary-care centers in Italy and analysis of the literature. Results: We provide readers with state-of-the-art measures of prophylaxis in ophthalmic surgery. Discussion and conclusion: Role of antibiotics is criticized in the light of stewardship antimicrobial paradigm. © The Author(s) 2018.