Chorioretinal folds: a proposed diagnostic algorithm

Alessandro Bagnis, Carlo Alberto Cutolo, Guido Corallo, Donatella Musetti, Massimo Nicolò, Carlo Enrico Traverso

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: To create a diagnostic algorithm for the management of chorioretinal folds. Methods: We reviewed the existing literature about chorioretinal folds focusing our attention on three specific conditions and created a diagnostic algorithm in order to otpimize the choice and the number of investigations. Results: Chorioretinal folds are visible striations of the fundus usually arranged in parallel lines and disposed horizontally. They may be either unilateral or bilateral, symptomatic or asymptomatic and are often associated with different possible ocular and extra ocular pathologies, including systemic diseases like autoimmune disorders and intracranial hypertension. They are named idiopathic when no apparent cause for their development is detectable. However, with improved diagnostic testing, the patients with idiopathic choroidal folds are likely to represent only a smaller portion of the total. Conclusions: Since choroidal folds be the sole sign of an underlying disease possibly requiring a multidisciplinary approach, an appropriate work-up varying according to the specific clinical features of each case is needed to define the etiology and the treatment. A diagnosting algorithm may be useful in order to optimize the diagnostic approach and management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2667-2673
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Ophthalmology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2019


  • Chorioretinal folds
  • Ocular diseases
  • Systemic diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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