Controversy currently exists about the ability of human neutrophils to produce IL-6. Here, we show that the chromatin organization of the IL-6 genomic locus in human neutrophils is constitutively kept in an inactive configuration. However, we also show that upon exposure to stimuli that trigger chromatin remodelling at the IL-6 locus, such as ligands for TLR8 or, less efficiently, TLR4, highly purified neutrophils express and secrete IL-6. In TLR8-activated neutrophils, but not monocytes, IL-6 expression is preceded by the induction of a latent enhancer located 14 kb upstream of the IL-6 transcriptional start site. In addition, IL-6 induction is potentiated by endogenous TNFα, which prolongs the synthesis of the IκBΧ co-activator and sustains C/EBPβ recruitment and histone acetylation at IL-6 regulatory regions. Altogether, these data clarify controversial literature on the ability of human neutrophils to generate IL-6 and uncover chromatin-dependent layers of regulation of IL-6 in these cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)