Chromogranin A regulates vesicle storage and mitochondrial dynamics to influence insulin secretion

J Wollam, SK Mahata, M Riopel, A Hernandez-Carretero, A Biswas, GK Bandyopadhyay, NW Chi, LE Eiden, NR Mahapatra, A Corti, NJG Webster, SK Mahata

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Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells. CgA deficiency in Chga-KO islets leads to compensatory overexpression of chromogranin B, secretogranin II, SNARE proteins and insulin genes, as well as increased insulin protein content. Ultrastructural studies of pancreatic islets revealed that Chga-KO β-cells contain fewer immature secretory granules than wild-type (WT) control but increased numbers of mature secretory granules and plasma membrane-docked vesicles. Compared to WT control, CgA-deficient β-cells exhibited increases in mitochondrial volume, numerical densities and fusion, as well as increased expression of nuclear encoded genes (Ndufa9, Ndufs8, Cyc1 and Atp5o). These changes in secretory vesicles and the mitochondria likely contribute to the increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion observed in Chga-KO mice. We conclude that CgA is an important regulator for coordination of mitochondrial dynamics, secretory vesicular quanta and GSIS for optimal secretory functioning of β-cells, suggesting a strong, CgA-dependent positive link between mitochondrial fusion and GSIS. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)487-501
Number of pages15
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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