Chronic atrophic gastritis: Natural history, diagnosis and therapeutic management. A position paper by the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Digestive Endoscopists [AIGO], the Italian Society of Digestive Endoscopy [SIED], the Italian Society of Gastroenterology [SIGE], and the Italian Society of Internal Medicine [SIMI]

Edith Lahner, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Angelo Zullo, Antonio Di Sabatino, Alberto Meggio, Paola Cesaro, Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Bruno Annibale, Gino Roberto Corazza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an underdiagnosed condition characterised by translational features going beyond the strict field of gastroenterology as it may manifest itself by a variable spectrum of gastric and extra-gastric symptoms and signs. It is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Helicobacter pylori-related CAG [multifocal] and autoimmune CAG (corpus-restricted) are apparently two different diseases, but they display overlapping features. Patients with cobalamin and/or iron deficiency anaemia or autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus, should be offered screening for CAG. Pepsinogens, gastrin-17, and anti-H. pylori antibodies serum assays seem to be reliable non-invasive screening tools for the presence of CAG, helpful to identify individuals to refer to gastroscopy with five standard gastric biopsies in order to obtain histological confirmation of diagnosis. Patients with CAG are at increased risk of developing gastric cancer, and they should be estimated with histological staging systems (OLGA or OLGIM). H. pylori eradication may be beneficial by modifying the natural history of atrophy, but not that of intestinal metaplasia. Patients with advanced stages of CAG (Stage III/IV OLGA or OLGIM) should undergo endoscopic surveillance every three years, those with autoimmune CAG every three-five years. In patients with CAG, a screening for autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiencies, including iron and vitamin B12, should be performed. The optimal treatment for dyspeptic symptoms in patients with CAG remains to be defined. Proton pump inhibitors are not indicated in hypochlorhydric CAG patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDigestive and Liver Disease
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Hospital Societies
Atrophic Gastritis
Gastroenterology
Natural History
Endoscopy
Helicobacter pylori
Therapeutics
Stomach
Vitamin B 12
Pepsinogens
Gastroenterologists
Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Gastroscopy
Iron-Deficiency Anemias
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Micronutrients
Thyroid Diseases
Metaplasia
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Autoimmune Diseases

Keywords

  • Atrophic gastritis
  • Autoimmune gastritis
  • Diagnosis
  • H. pylori
  • Histology
  • Vitamin B

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

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title = "Chronic atrophic gastritis: Natural history, diagnosis and therapeutic management. A position paper by the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Digestive Endoscopists [AIGO], the Italian Society of Digestive Endoscopy [SIED], the Italian Society of Gastroenterology [SIGE], and the Italian Society of Internal Medicine [SIMI]",
abstract = "Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an underdiagnosed condition characterised by translational features going beyond the strict field of gastroenterology as it may manifest itself by a variable spectrum of gastric and extra-gastric symptoms and signs. It is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Helicobacter pylori-related CAG [multifocal] and autoimmune CAG (corpus-restricted) are apparently two different diseases, but they display overlapping features. Patients with cobalamin and/or iron deficiency anaemia or autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus, should be offered screening for CAG. Pepsinogens, gastrin-17, and anti-H. pylori antibodies serum assays seem to be reliable non-invasive screening tools for the presence of CAG, helpful to identify individuals to refer to gastroscopy with five standard gastric biopsies in order to obtain histological confirmation of diagnosis. Patients with CAG are at increased risk of developing gastric cancer, and they should be estimated with histological staging systems (OLGA or OLGIM). H. pylori eradication may be beneficial by modifying the natural history of atrophy, but not that of intestinal metaplasia. Patients with advanced stages of CAG (Stage III/IV OLGA or OLGIM) should undergo endoscopic surveillance every three years, those with autoimmune CAG every three-five years. In patients with CAG, a screening for autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiencies, including iron and vitamin B12, should be performed. The optimal treatment for dyspeptic symptoms in patients with CAG remains to be defined. Proton pump inhibitors are not indicated in hypochlorhydric CAG patients.",
keywords = "Atrophic gastritis, Autoimmune gastritis, Diagnosis, H. pylori, Histology, Vitamin B",
author = "Edith Lahner and Zagari, {Rocco Maurizio} and Angelo Zullo and {Di Sabatino}, Antonio and Alberto Meggio and Paola Cesaro and Lenti, {Marco Vincenzo} and Bruno Annibale and Corazza, {Gino Roberto}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
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doi = "10.1016/j.dld.2019.09.016",
language = "English",
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T2 - Natural history, diagnosis and therapeutic management. A position paper by the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Digestive Endoscopists [AIGO], the Italian Society of Digestive Endoscopy [SIED], the Italian Society of Gastroenterology [SIGE], and the Italian Society of Internal Medicine [SIMI]

AU - Lahner, Edith

AU - Zagari, Rocco Maurizio

AU - Zullo, Angelo

AU - Di Sabatino, Antonio

AU - Meggio, Alberto

AU - Cesaro, Paola

AU - Lenti, Marco Vincenzo

AU - Annibale, Bruno

AU - Corazza, Gino Roberto

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an underdiagnosed condition characterised by translational features going beyond the strict field of gastroenterology as it may manifest itself by a variable spectrum of gastric and extra-gastric symptoms and signs. It is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Helicobacter pylori-related CAG [multifocal] and autoimmune CAG (corpus-restricted) are apparently two different diseases, but they display overlapping features. Patients with cobalamin and/or iron deficiency anaemia or autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus, should be offered screening for CAG. Pepsinogens, gastrin-17, and anti-H. pylori antibodies serum assays seem to be reliable non-invasive screening tools for the presence of CAG, helpful to identify individuals to refer to gastroscopy with five standard gastric biopsies in order to obtain histological confirmation of diagnosis. Patients with CAG are at increased risk of developing gastric cancer, and they should be estimated with histological staging systems (OLGA or OLGIM). H. pylori eradication may be beneficial by modifying the natural history of atrophy, but not that of intestinal metaplasia. Patients with advanced stages of CAG (Stage III/IV OLGA or OLGIM) should undergo endoscopic surveillance every three years, those with autoimmune CAG every three-five years. In patients with CAG, a screening for autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiencies, including iron and vitamin B12, should be performed. The optimal treatment for dyspeptic symptoms in patients with CAG remains to be defined. Proton pump inhibitors are not indicated in hypochlorhydric CAG patients.

AB - Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an underdiagnosed condition characterised by translational features going beyond the strict field of gastroenterology as it may manifest itself by a variable spectrum of gastric and extra-gastric symptoms and signs. It is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Helicobacter pylori-related CAG [multifocal] and autoimmune CAG (corpus-restricted) are apparently two different diseases, but they display overlapping features. Patients with cobalamin and/or iron deficiency anaemia or autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus, should be offered screening for CAG. Pepsinogens, gastrin-17, and anti-H. pylori antibodies serum assays seem to be reliable non-invasive screening tools for the presence of CAG, helpful to identify individuals to refer to gastroscopy with five standard gastric biopsies in order to obtain histological confirmation of diagnosis. Patients with CAG are at increased risk of developing gastric cancer, and they should be estimated with histological staging systems (OLGA or OLGIM). H. pylori eradication may be beneficial by modifying the natural history of atrophy, but not that of intestinal metaplasia. Patients with advanced stages of CAG (Stage III/IV OLGA or OLGIM) should undergo endoscopic surveillance every three years, those with autoimmune CAG every three-five years. In patients with CAG, a screening for autoimmune thyroid disease and micronutrient deficiencies, including iron and vitamin B12, should be performed. The optimal treatment for dyspeptic symptoms in patients with CAG remains to be defined. Proton pump inhibitors are not indicated in hypochlorhydric CAG patients.

KW - Atrophic gastritis

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KW - Histology

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