Chronic kidney disease in the hypertensive patient: An overview of the I-DEMAND study

Giovanna Leoncini, Francesca Viazzi, Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Ettore Ambrosioni, Francesco V. Costa, Gastone Leonetti, Achille C. Pessina, Bruno Trimarco, Massimo Volpe, Giacomo Deferrari, Roberto Pontremoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The kidney has been recognized as a sensor of cardiovascular risk. However, evaluation of urinary albumin excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate is still too often overlooked in clinical practice.The I-DEMAND (Italy-Developing Education and awareness on MicroAlbuminuria in patients with hyperteNsive Disease) study was designed to assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria and its clinical correlates among Italian hypertensive patients. A total of 4151 patients from 87 specialized care centres were included in the study.Overall, this study demonstrated that approximately one-half of the enrolled patients had chronic kidney disease, with albuminuria being present in one-quarter of the individuals. The presence of renal abnormalities was more prevalent in patients with concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.This article discusses the main results of the study and its potential implications in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-36
Number of pages6
JournalHigh Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • cardiovascular risk
  • chronic kidney disease
  • hypertension
  • microalbuminuria
  • Renal disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Internal Medicine


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