Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study

G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study is an ongoing observational survey that examines the role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as an independent predictor of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 15,773 Italian subjects with type 2 diabetes. The analysis of data collected at the enrollment visit provided a picture of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with other complications, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and treatments in a large contemporary cohort. Main results of this analysis were that (a) non-albuminuric renal impairment is the predominant clinical phenotype in patients, particularly women, with reduced eGFR; (b) concordance between CKD and diabetic retinopathy is low, with only a minority of patients with renal dysfunction presenting with any or advanced retinal lesions; (c) the non-albuminuric form is associated with a significant prevalence of CVD, especially at the level of the coronary vascular bed; (d) CKD is associated with hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability more than with average HbA1c, whereas retinopathy and CVD are not; (e) in elderly individuals with moderate-to-severe eGFR reduction, use of agents which are not recommended, such as sulphonylureas and metformin, is still frequent; and (f) though complications are generally more prevalent in men (except non-albuminuric renal impairment) women show a less favorable CVD risk profile and achieve therapeutic targets to a lesser extent than men, despite the fact that treatment intensity is not lower. These data update existing information on the natural history of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)815-822
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Albuminuria
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • EGFR
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine(all)

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