Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and risk of primary dysmenorrhea

Fabio Parazzini, Luca Tozzi, Raffaella M Ezzopane, Laura Luchini, Maurizio Marchini, Luigi Fedele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We analyzed the relation between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and risk of dysmenorrhea using data from a case-control study in Milan, Italy. With never-smokers as the reference category, the relative risk (RR) of dysmenorrhea was 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-4.4] for women smoking 10-30 cigarettes per day. The risk of dysmenorrhea increased with duration of smoking in women who smoked for less than 10 years (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 6-2.6) and in those who smoked for 10-20 years (RR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-6.2). In comparison with teetotalers, the age-adjusted RR of dysmenorrhea was 0.8 (95% CI = 0.4- 1.5) for alcohol drinkers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-472
Number of pages4
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1994


  • Alcohol
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Menstruation
  • Primary dysmenorrhea
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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