Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) represents a common cause of secondary osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, where the negative effect of estrogen withdrawal and that of hyperparathyroidism on bone mineralization coexist. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile has been correlated to both osteoporosis and fragility fractures. The study aimed to profile a set of miRNAs associated with osteoporotic fractures, namely miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-24-2-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-93-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-125b-5p and miR-148-3p, in the plasma of 20 postmenopausal PHPT women. PHPT miRNAs profiles were compared with those detected in 10 age-matched postmenopausal non-PHPT osteoporotic women (OP). All the 10 miRNAs were detected in the plasma samples of both PHPT and OP women. The miRNA profiles clearly distinguished PHPT from OP samples, and identified within the PHPT group, two clusters differing for the PHPT severity, in term of ionized calcium and bone mineralization. In particular, miR-93-5p was significantly downregulated in PHPT samples, while miR-24-3p negatively correlated with the T-score at lumbar, femur neck and total hip sites. PHPT women who experienced osteoporotic fractures had plasma miR-24-3p levels higher than those detected in unfractured PHPT women. In conclusion, PHPT may modulate circulating fractures-related miRNAs, in particular, miR-93-5p, which may distinguish estrogen-related from PHPT-related osteoporosis.