Aim: To investigate the role of endothelial PV-1 in patients with untreated celiac disease (CD)-associated liver injury. Materials & methods: PV-1 and PV-1 mRNA were measured in intestinal biopsies from untreated CD patients with elevated or normal alanine transaminase levels, controls, patients with inflammatory bowel disease and patients with toxic liver injury. Circulating PV-1 levels were also evaluated. Results: Circulating PV-1 levels were significantly increased in the serum of patients with CD-associated liver injury and reverted to normal following a gluten-free diet. Mucosal PV-1 and PV-1 mRNA were no different in patients with CD-associated liver injury. Conclusion: Serum but not mucosal PV-1 represents a marker of gluten-dependent liver injury and response to a gluten-free diet in patients with untreated CD.