Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Era of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition

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: The ligation of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) with programmed cell death ligand PD-L activates the immune checkpoint leading to T-cell dysfunction, exhaustion, and tolerance, especially in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) where the PD-L/ Janus kinase (Jak) signaling was frequently found altered. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies can reverse this immune checkpoint, releasing the brake on T-cell responses. The characterization of the mechanisms regulating both the expression of PD-1 and PD-L and their function(s) in HL is ongoing. We provide in this review the recent findings focused on this aim with special attention on the major research topics, such as adverse events and resistance to PD-1-PD-L1 inhibitor treatment, together with a part about angiogenesis, extracellular vesicles, and microbiome in HL pathogenesis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1596
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2 2019


  • EBV
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • PD-1
  • PD-L1
  • adverse events
  • angiogenesis
  • cytokines
  • extracellular vesicles
  • immune checkpoint inhibitors


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