Classification of pain in cancer patients - A systematic literature review

Anne K. Knudsen, N. Aass, R. Fainsinger, A. Caraceni, P. Klepstad, M. Jordhøy, M. J. Hjermstad, Stein Kaasa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


One of the aims of the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC) is to achieve consensus on a classification system for cancer pain. We performed a systematic literature review to identify existing classification systems and domains/items used to classify cancer patients with pain. In a systematic search in the databases Medline and Embase, covering 1986-2006, 692 hits were obtained. 92 papers were evaluated to address pain classification. Six standardised classification systems were identified; three of them systematically developed and partially validated. Both pain characteristics and patient characteristics relevant for cancer pain classification were included in the classification systems. All but one of the standardised systems aim at predicting treatment response or adequacy of treatment. Several domains and items used to describe cancer pain but not formally described as part of a classification system were also identified and systematised. The existing approaches to pain classification in cancer patients are different, mostly not thoroughly validated, and none is widely applied. An internationally accepted classification system for cancer pain could improve research and cancer pain management. This systematic review suggests a need for developing an international consensus on how to classify pain in cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-308
Number of pages14
JournalPalliative Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Cancer
  • Classification
  • Pain
  • Palliative care
  • Symptoms
  • Systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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