Clinical and molecular epidemiology of erythropoietic protoporphyria in Italy

Paolo Ventura, Valentina Brancaleoni, Elena Di Pierro, Giovanna Graziadei, Annelise Macrì, Claudio Carmine Guida, Annamaria Nicolli, Maria Teresa Rossi, Francesca Granata, Valeria Fiorentino, Silvia Fustinoni, Raffella Sala, Piergiacomo Calzavara Pinton, Andrea Trevisan, Stefano Marchini, Chiara Cuoghi, Matteo Marcacci, Elena Corradini, Fiammetta Sorge, Caterina AuriziMaria Grazia Savino, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Antonello Pietrangelo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare inherited disease associated with heme metabolism, characterized by severe life-long photosensitivity and liver involvement. OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological data of EPP in Italy. MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective/retrospective data of EPP patients were collected by an Italian network of porphyria specialist centres (Gruppo Italiano Porfiria, GrIP) over a 20-year period (1996-2017). RESULTS: In total, 179 patients (79 females) with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of EPP were assessed, revealing a prevalence of 3.15 cases per million persons and an incidence of 0.13 cases per million persons/year. Incidence significantly increased after 2009 (due to the availability of alfa-melanotide, which effectively limits skin photosensitivity). Mean age at diagnosis was 28 years, with only 22 patients (12.2%) diagnosed ≤10 years old. Gene mutations were assessed in 173 (96.6%) patients; most (164; 91.3%) were FECH mutations on one allele in association with the hypomorphic variant, c.315-48C, on the other (classic EPP), and nine (5.2%) were ALAS2 mutations (X-linked EPP). Only one case of autosomal recessive EPP was observed. Of the 42 different FECH mutations, 15 are novel, three mutations collectively accounted for 45.9% (75/164) of the mutations (c.215dupT [27.2%], c.901_902delTG [11.5%] and c.67 + 5G > A [7.2%]), and frameshift mutations were prevalent (33.3%). A form of light protection was used by 109/179 (60.8%) patients, and 100 (56%) had at least one α-melanotide implant. Three cases of severe acute liver involvement, requiring OLT, were observed. CONCLUSION: These data define, for the first time, the clinical and molecular epidemiology of EPP in Italy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)532-540
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean journal of dermatology : EJD
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2020


  • cutaneous porphyrias
  • erythropoietic protoporphyria
  • ferrochelatase
  • photodermatosis
  • protoporphyrin
  • X-Link EPP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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