We used multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) techniques [brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), 1H-MRS; and skeletal muscle phosphorous MRS, 31P-MRS] to investigate interictal brain microstructural changes and tissue energy metabolism in four women with genetically determined familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), belonging to two unrelated families, compared with 10 healthy women. Brain DWI revealed a significant increase of the apparent diffusion coefficient median values in the vermis and cerebellar hemispheres of FHM2 patients, preceding in two subjects the onset of interictal cerebellar deficits. 31P-MRS revealed defective energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of FHM2 patients, while brain 1H-MRS showed a mild pathological increase in lactate in the lateral ventricles of one patient and a mild reduction of cortical N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine ratio in another one. Our MRS results showed that a multisystem energy metabolism defect in FHM2 is associated with microstructural cerebellar changes detected by DWI, even before the onset of cerebellar symptoms.
- Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging
- Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- Skeletal muscle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology