Recent molecular studies of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) regulation have reinvigorated the field and shown promise for the development of clinical HbF inducers to be used in patients with β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. However, while numerous promising inducers of HbF have been studied in the past in β-thalassemia patient populations, with limited success in some cases, no universally effective agents have been found. Here we examine the clinical studies of such inducers in an attempt to systematically review the field. We examine trials of agents, including 5-azacytidine, hydroxyurea, and short-chain fatty acids. This review highlights the heterogeneity of clinical studies done on these agents, including both the patient populations examined and the study end points. By examining the published studies of these agents, we hope to provide a resource that will be valuable for the design of future studies of HbF inducers in β-thalassemia patient populations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology