Clinical factors influencing the prescription of antidepressants and benzodiazepines

. Results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD)

Koen Demyttenaere, Anke Bonnewyn, Ronny Bruffaerts, Giovanni De Girolamo, Isabelle Gasquet, Viviane Kovess, Josep Maria Haro, Jordi Alonso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

96 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To examine factors associated with the use of antidepressants (AD) and benzodiazepines (BZD) in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. 21,425 non-institutionalized individuals aged 18 years and over were interviewed using the third version of the Composite International Interview (CIDI-3.0). Respondents were asked about AD and BZD use, and whether they consulted formal health services for emotional problems in the previous year. Sociodemographic variables, presence of mood/anxiety disorders and of painful physical symptoms were collected. Results: 34.38% and 9.17% of the sample reported the use of AD and BZD respectively in the previous 12 months. Only 29.95% of subjects with a 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) had been taking antidepressants. After controlling for several clinical and non-clinical factors, help seeking for emotional problems was the most important independent predictor for the use of AD or BZD (OR: 13.58 and 5.17, respectively). Higher age was the second important predictor (OR: 6.52 and 4.86, respectively). A 12-month or lifetime prevalence of MDE or an anxiety disorder were also predictors for AD or BZD use (OR for MDE: 5.00 and 2.82, OR for anxiety disorders: 2.13 and 1.85). Finally, the presence of painful physical symptoms also predicted the use of AD and BZD, while female gender, lower education and higher age predicted only the use of BZD. Conclusion: Less than one third of subjects with a 12-month prevalence of MDE had been taking antidepressants. But seeking help for emotional problems was a more important predictor of the use of ADs or BZDs than a formal (DSM-IV) psychiatric diagnosis, suggesting that usage of ADs is not always according to the licensed DSM-IV indication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-93
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume110
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2008

Fingerprint

Benzodiazepines
Mental Disorders
Antidepressive Agents
Prescriptions
Epidemiology
Anxiety Disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Belgium
Mood Disorders
Netherlands
Spain
Italy
Health Services
France
Germany
Interviews
Education
Population

Keywords

  • Antidepressants
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Major depressive disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Clinical factors influencing the prescription of antidepressants and benzodiazepines : . Results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD). / Demyttenaere, Koen; Bonnewyn, Anke; Bruffaerts, Ronny; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Gasquet, Isabelle; Kovess, Viviane; Haro, Josep Maria; Alonso, Jordi.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 110, No. 1-2, 09.2008, p. 84-93.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Demyttenaere, Koen ; Bonnewyn, Anke ; Bruffaerts, Ronny ; De Girolamo, Giovanni ; Gasquet, Isabelle ; Kovess, Viviane ; Haro, Josep Maria ; Alonso, Jordi. / Clinical factors influencing the prescription of antidepressants and benzodiazepines : . Results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD). In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008 ; Vol. 110, No. 1-2. pp. 84-93.
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AU - De Girolamo, Giovanni

AU - Gasquet, Isabelle

AU - Kovess, Viviane

AU - Haro, Josep Maria

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N2 - Objective: To examine factors associated with the use of antidepressants (AD) and benzodiazepines (BZD) in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. 21,425 non-institutionalized individuals aged 18 years and over were interviewed using the third version of the Composite International Interview (CIDI-3.0). Respondents were asked about AD and BZD use, and whether they consulted formal health services for emotional problems in the previous year. Sociodemographic variables, presence of mood/anxiety disorders and of painful physical symptoms were collected. Results: 34.38% and 9.17% of the sample reported the use of AD and BZD respectively in the previous 12 months. Only 29.95% of subjects with a 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) had been taking antidepressants. After controlling for several clinical and non-clinical factors, help seeking for emotional problems was the most important independent predictor for the use of AD or BZD (OR: 13.58 and 5.17, respectively). Higher age was the second important predictor (OR: 6.52 and 4.86, respectively). A 12-month or lifetime prevalence of MDE or an anxiety disorder were also predictors for AD or BZD use (OR for MDE: 5.00 and 2.82, OR for anxiety disorders: 2.13 and 1.85). Finally, the presence of painful physical symptoms also predicted the use of AD and BZD, while female gender, lower education and higher age predicted only the use of BZD. Conclusion: Less than one third of subjects with a 12-month prevalence of MDE had been taking antidepressants. But seeking help for emotional problems was a more important predictor of the use of ADs or BZDs than a formal (DSM-IV) psychiatric diagnosis, suggesting that usage of ADs is not always according to the licensed DSM-IV indication.

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