Clinical implications of the general movement optimality score: Beyond the classes of rasch analysis

Vanessa Maziero Barbosa, Christa Einspieler, Everett Smith, Arend F. Bos, Giovanni Cioni, Fabrizio Ferrari, Hong Yang, Berndt Urlesberger, Peter B. Marschik, Dajie Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article explores the clinical implications of the three different classes drawn from a Rasch analysis of the general movements optimality scores (GMOS) of 383 infants. Parametric analysis of the class membership examines four variables: age of assessment, brain injury presence, general movement patterns, and 2-year-old outcomes. GMOS separated infants with typical (class 3) from atypical development, and further separated cerebral palsy (class 2) from other neurodevel-opmental disorders (class 1). Each class is unique regarding its quantitative and qualitative repre-sentations on the four variables. The GMOS has strong psychometric properties and provides a quantitative measure of early motor functions. The GMOS can be confidently used to assist with early diagnosis and predict distinct classes of developmental outcomes, grade motor behaviors, and provide a solid base to study individual general movement developmental trajectories.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1066
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2021


  • Cerebral palsy
  • Clinical implications
  • Detailed assessment
  • General movements
  • Neonate
  • Opti-mality score
  • Preterm infant
  • Psychometric properties
  • Rasch analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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