BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disease, caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gut microbiota dysbiosis might play a significant role in pathogenesis of chronic enteropathies and its modulation can be used as an intervention strategy in CD as well. In this study, we aimed to identify correlations between fecal microbiota, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in healthy children and children with CD after administration of probiotic Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B632.
METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled study enrolled 40 children with CD (CD) and 16 healthy children (HC). CD children were randomly allocated into two groups, of which 20 belonged to the placebo (PL) group and 20 to the Probiotic (PR) group. The PR group received a probiotic formulation containing a mixture of 2 strains, B. breve BR03 (DSM 16604) and B. breve B632 (DSM 24706) in 1:1 ratio for 3 months. Subsequently, for statistical analysis, blood and fecal samples from CD children (on enrolment - T0 and after 3 months, at the end of intervention with probiotic/placebo - T1) and HC children were used. The HC group was sampled only once (T0).
RESULTS: Verrucomicrobia, Parcubacteria and some yet unknown phyla of Bacteria and Archaea may be involved in the disease, indicated by a strong correlation to TNF-α. Likewise, Proteobacteria strongly correlated with fecal SCFAs concentration. The effect of probiotic administration has disclosed a negative correlation between Verrucomicrobia, some unknown phyla of Bacteria, Synergistetes, Euryarchaeota and some SCFAs, turning them into an important target in microbiome restoration process. Synergistetes and Euryarchaeota may have a role in the anti-inflammatory process in healthy human gut.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight new phyla, which may have an important relation to disease-related parameters, CD itself and health.