BACKGROUND: Lack of adequate management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) often results in delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment. This study assessed the clinical management and outcome of stages 1-5 CKD patients.
METHODS: Patients were prospectively followed for 3 years in 25 nephrology centers across Italy. Clinical characteristics were measured at baseline and every 6 months. Outcome measures included CKD staging, presence of comorbidities, treatment, mineral bone disorder (MBD) parameters, and patient outcomes.
RESULTS: Of 884 enrolled patients (59.7% males, aged 66.2 ± 14.6 years), 587 (66.4%) completed the study. The majority of patients were referred by a general practitioner (44.7%) and had stage 3 or 4 CKD (40.9 and 23.8% respectively). Data reveal that 91.3% of patients had at least 1 concomitant disease, most frequently hypertension (80.1%) and dyslipidemia (42.5%); 94.6% of patients were receiving cardiovascular medication and 52.6% were receiving lipid-lowering medication. Approximately 40% of patients had proteinuria and intact parathyroid hormone levels outside the normal range. As expected, stages 4 and 5 CKD patients had a higher prevalence of proteinuria (68 and 74%), MBD (59 and 88%) and anemia (28 and 73%), as well as a higher risk of hospitalization (34.3 and 51.9%) and need for dialysis (69.5 and 70%). The overall probability of survival over 36 months was 90.6%.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first Italian prospective study performed with a large cohort of CKD patients over a 3-year period. Considering the multifactorial burden of diseases associated with CKD patients, the need for greater attention to CKD and related disorders is paramount.