Objective To assess the clinical outcome of testicular sex cord stromal tumors (TSCST) according to management and stage. Patients and Methods Clinical and pathologic features, stage, and treatment of patients with TSCST were retrieved from our database. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated the relapse-free survival and cancer-specific survival. Results We identified 67 patients between December 1982 and January 2013: 55 patients (82.1%) had a Leydig cell tumor and 11 patients (16.4%) had a Sertoli cell tumor. Four patients (5.9%) presented with gynecomastia. Forty-eight patients (71.6%) had no pathologic risk factor, and patients 3 had 3 risk factors. Testis-sparing surgery was performed in 31 patients (46.3%) and orchiectomy in 36 patients (53.7%). The median tumor diameter was 0.7 cm (interquartile range, 0.6-1.3) and 1.5 cm (interquartile range, 0.9-2.6) in the 2 groups, respectively (P,.007 at Mann-Whitney rank-sum test). The 5-year relapse-free survival was 89.4% (95% confidence interval, 75.9%-95.5%) and cancer-specific survival was 90.3% (95% confidence interval, 72.7%-96.7%), respectively. Metastases were documented in 8 patients (11.9%), 5 relapsing after a median follow-up of 37.4 months. All 3 patients with 3 risk factors had metastatic disease. Four of 5 patients with retroperitoneal metastases only were cured by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (3 patients at presentation and 1 during follow-up); 4 patients undergoing chemotherapy progressed and ultimately died of disease. Conclusion Most of the patients with TSCST had a favorable prognosis. Testis-sparing surgery may be feasible and effective in case of small tumors. Few patients had metastatic spread, but only those with nodal metastases may benefit from an early retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Risk factors associate with disease behavior, but indications to prophylactic intervention remain controversial.
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