Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites during morphine dose titration for chronic cancer pain

Simona De Gregori, Cristina E. Minella, Manuela De Gregori, Carmine Tinelli, Guglielmina N. Ranzani, Stefano Govoni, Massimo Allegri, Mario Regazzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most prevalent and distressing symptoms in patients with cancer. There is evidence from observational studies that many patients do not get adequate relief. Although data in the literature confirm the effectiveness of most opioid drugs for the treatment of chronic pain, there is limited information about opioid titration. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine (M) and their correlation with pharmacodynamic results (effective daily dose of M and side effects) during the M titration phase, in the management of chronic cancer pain. Fifty-two consecutive patients were administered Oramorph (Molteni Farmaceutici, Scandicci, Florence, Italy; beginning with 5 mg every 6 hours), to maintain pain intensity at low levels (visual analog scale

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-344
Number of pages10
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • cancer
  • chronic pain
  • dose titration
  • morphine
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • therapeutic drug monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Medicine(all)

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