Clinical relevance of anemia and transfusion iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes.

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Abstract

Most patients with myelodysplastic syndrome eventually become dependent on regular red cell transfusions. This dependency has a negative impact on clinical outcome, primarily because it may be associated with more severe marrow failure. In addition, however, transfusion dependency may involve clinical consequences of chronic anemia and iron overload. Although transfusion iron is primarily taken up by the reticuloendothelial cells, the metal is later redistributed to parenchymal cells. This redistribution is modulated by several factors, including the degree of ineffective erythropoiesis through its suppressive effect on hepcidin production. Body iron status is routinely assessed by serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, but there is a need of reliable tools for locating iron accumulation in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging T2* provides a non-invasive method for detecting and quantifying both liver and myocardial iron overload. Clinical consequences of parenchymal iron overload have been reported not only in thalassemia major, but also in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Transfusion-dependent patients with isolated erythroid dysplasia and low risk of leukemic evolution are more likely to develop parenchymal iron overload and its toxicity, and therefore may benefit from chelation therapy. There may also be a benefit of chelation therapy in patients with transfusion iron overload undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Deferoxamine and deferasirox are currently available for treatment of transfusion iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-175
Number of pages10
JournalHematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Iron Overload
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Anemia
Chelation Therapy
Iron
Hepcidins
Deferoxamine
Erythropoiesis
beta-Thalassemia
Stem Cell Transplantation
Transferrin
Ferritins
Bone Marrow
Metals
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Liver
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Clinical relevance of anemia and transfusion iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes.",
abstract = "Most patients with myelodysplastic syndrome eventually become dependent on regular red cell transfusions. This dependency has a negative impact on clinical outcome, primarily because it may be associated with more severe marrow failure. In addition, however, transfusion dependency may involve clinical consequences of chronic anemia and iron overload. Although transfusion iron is primarily taken up by the reticuloendothelial cells, the metal is later redistributed to parenchymal cells. This redistribution is modulated by several factors, including the degree of ineffective erythropoiesis through its suppressive effect on hepcidin production. Body iron status is routinely assessed by serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, but there is a need of reliable tools for locating iron accumulation in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging T2* provides a non-invasive method for detecting and quantifying both liver and myocardial iron overload. Clinical consequences of parenchymal iron overload have been reported not only in thalassemia major, but also in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Transfusion-dependent patients with isolated erythroid dysplasia and low risk of leukemic evolution are more likely to develop parenchymal iron overload and its toxicity, and therefore may benefit from chelation therapy. There may also be a benefit of chelation therapy in patients with transfusion iron overload undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Deferoxamine and deferasirox are currently available for treatment of transfusion iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.",
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