Clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic plaque extent to define risk for major events in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease: The long-term coronary computed tomography angiography CONFIRM registry

Alexander R. Van Rosendael, A. Maxim Bax, Jeff M. Smit, Inge J. Van Den Hoogen, Xiaoyue Ma, Subhi Al'Aref, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz H. Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Daniel S. Berman, Matthew J. Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q. Callister, Hyuk Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J.W. Chow, Ricardo C. Cury, Augustin Delago, Gudrun Feuchtner, Martin HadamitzkyJoerg Hausleiter, Philipp A. Kaufmann, Yong Jin Kim, Jonathon A. Leipsic, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Pedro De Araújo Gonçalves, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert L. Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Todd C. Villines, Heidi Gransar, Yao Lu, Jessica M. Peña, Fay Y. Lin, Leslee J. Shaw, James K. Min, Jeroen J. Bax

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims: In patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), we examined the prognostic value of risk factors and atherosclerotic extent. Methods and results: Patients from the long-term CONFIRM registry without prior CAD and without obstructive (≥50%) stenosis were included. Within the groups of normal coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (N = 1849) and non-obstructive CAD (N = 1698), the prognostic value of traditional clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic extent (segment involvement score, SIS) was assessed with Cox models. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or late revascularization. In total, 3547 patients were included (age 57.9 ± 12.1 years, 57.8% male), experiencing 460 MACE during 5.4 years of follow-up. Age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were the clinical variables associated with increased MACE risk, but the magnitude of risk was higher for CCTA defined atherosclerotic extent; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for SIS >5 was 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.9) while HR for diabetes and hypertension were 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), respectively. Exclusion of revascularization as endpoint did not modify the results. In normal CCTA, presence of ≥1 traditional risk factors did not worsen prognosis (log-rank P = 0.248), while it did in non-obstructive CAD (log-rank P = 0.025). Adjusted for SIS, hypertension and diabetes predicted MACE risk in non-obstructive CAD, while diabetes did not increase risk in absence of CAD (P-interaction = 0.004). Conclusion: Among patients without obstructive CAD, the extent of CAD provides more prognostic information for MACE than traditional cardiovascular risk factors. An interaction was observed between risk factors and CAD burden, suggesting synergistic effects of both.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-488
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2020

Keywords

  • atherosclerosis
  • coronary computed tomography angiography
  • imaging
  • preventive cardiology
  • risk stratification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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