Diplopia is one of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations that can be observed during HIV-infection. The etiologic agents of diplopia in HIV-positive patients can be identified with HIV itself or opportunistic pathogens or other related conditions. We reviewed the clinical records of 13 HIV-positive patients with mono or bilateral diplopia, focusing on etiologic agents, clinical evaluation and prognosis. This review encompassed all cases observed from January 1992 to June 1995 at the Infectious Diseases Department, Policlinico S. Matteo, University of Pavia. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, anterior segment evaluation with biomicroscopy, dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy and ocular motility evaluation (with Cover test and Hess-Lancaster test). If requested by clinical findings, radiologic (TC and/or MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid examination were performed in some patients. The most common causes of diplopia - CNS lesions or ocular diseases, - resulted in agreement with those reported in the literature (T. gondii, C. neoformans, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, HIV, JC virus, CMV). We were able to confirm, according to our experience, that diplopia occurrence is often a negative prognostic factor, since it is commonly associated with CNS conditions. In most cases diplopia can herald a near demise (8 patients on 13 died within 60 days from diplopia onset). In those cases where a treatment was available (2 cases of cryptococcosis, 1 case of neurotoxoplasmosis and 1 case of CMV retinitis) a complete resolution of neuro-ophthalmic symptoms was achieved.
|Translated title of the contribution||Clinical value of diplopia in HIV-infected patients. Evaluation of a personal case file and analysis of the literature|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 1996|
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