Clusterization of co-morbidities and multi-morbidities among persons living with HIV: A cross-sectional study

Paolo Maggi, Carmen R. Santoro, Marco Nofri, Elena Ricci, Nicolò De Gennaro, Chiara Bellacosa, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Giancarlo Orofino, Barbara Menzaghi, Antonio Di Biagio, Nicola Squillace, Daniela Francisci, Francesca Vichi, Chiara Molteni, Paolo Bonfanti, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio

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Background: Among people living with HIV (PLWH), the prevalence of non-HIV related co-morbidities is increasing. Aim of the present study is to describe co-morbidity and multi-morbidity, their clustering mode and the potential disease-disease interactions in a cohort of Italian HIV patients. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis conducted by the Coordinamento Italiano per lo Studio di Allergia e Infezioni da HIV (CISAI) on adult subjects attending HIV-outpatient facilities. Non-HIV co-morbidities included: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, oncologic diseases, osteoporosis, probable case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, psychiatric illness, kidney disease. Multi-morbidity was defined as the presence of two or more co-morbidities. Results: One thousand and eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the study (mean age 47.9 ± 10.8). One hundred-ninety patients (17.5%) had no co-morbidity, whereas 285 (26.2%) had one condition and 612 (56.3%) were multi-morbid. The most recurrent associations were: 1) dyslipidemia + hypertension (237, 21.8%); 2) dyslipidemia + COPD (188, 17.3%); 3) COPD + HCV-Ab+ (141, 12.9%). Multi-morbidity was associated with older age, higher body mass index, current and former smoking, CDC stage C and longer ART duration. Conclusions: More than 50% of PLHW were multi-morbid and about 30% had three or more concurrent comorbidities. The identification of common patterns of comorbidities address the combined risks of multiple drug and disease-disease interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number555
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 25 2019


  • Clusterization
  • Co-morbidity
  • Disease-disease interactions
  • HIV
  • Multi-morbidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases


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