Some antimicrobial agents have been reported to modify the host immune responses both in vivo and in vitro. As we demonstrated previously that co-amoxiclav had beneficial properties which result in enhancement of the microbicidal functions of human poly-morphonuclear cell (PMNs), we investigated the modulatory effect of this combination on cytokine production by human PMNs in vitro. The addition of co-amoxiclav elicited the production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PMNs of substantial amounts of some cytokines, namely IL-8 and IL-1β, after the addition of Klebsiella pneumoniae. These cytokine levels were higher than those obtained by PMNs incubated in culture medium only, without co-amoxiclav.
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