Cocaine in surface waters: A new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

Ettore Zuccato, Chiara Chiabrando, Sara Castiglioni, Davide Calamari, Renzo Bagnati, Silvia Schiarea, Roberto Fanelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

316 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods: Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE) were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results: We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each) for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion: This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here - in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse - might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 5 2005

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Cocaine
Substance-Related Disorders
drug
surface water
Water
Waste Water
Rivers
river
Water Purification
Street Drugs
crime
aquatic environment
water flow
metabolite
mass spectrometry
urban area
catchment
Aptitude
drug abuse
Crime

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cocaine in surface waters : A new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse. / Zuccato, Ettore; Chiabrando, Chiara; Castiglioni, Sara; Calamari, Davide; Bagnati, Renzo; Schiarea, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto.

In: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, Vol. 4, 14, 05.08.2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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