Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis

Francesco Sofi, Andrea A. Conti, Anna Maria Gori, Maria Luisa Eliana Luisi, Alessandro Casini, Rosanna Abbate, Gian Franco Gensini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

97 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and aims: During the past three decades the relationship between habitual coffee drinking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been assessed in numerous studies, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the data published on the association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of CHD. Methods and results: Thirteen case-control and 10 cohort studies were included. Case-control studies incorporated 9487 cases of CHD and 27,747 controls, and cohort studies included a total of 403,631 participants that were followed for between 3 and 44 years. The summary of odds ratios (OR) for the case-control studies showed statistically significant associations between coffee consumption and CHD for the highest intake group (>4 cups/day), OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.49-2.24; P <0.0001), and for the second highest category (3-4 cups/day), OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.04-1.71; P <0.0001), while no significant association emerged for low daily coffee intake (≤2 cups/day), OR 1.03 (95% CI 0.87-1.21; P = 0.45). The analysis of long-term follow-up cohort studies did not show any association between the consumption of coffee and CHD, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.95-1.41; P = 0.14) for the highest category, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.90-1.22; P = 0.57) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.90-1.19; P = 0.60) for the second and third highest categories, respectively. These results did not differ substantially when controlling for region of origin, fatal and non-fatal events, year of publication, and number of years of follow-up. Conclusions: Despite a significant association between high consumption of coffee and CHD reported among case-control studies, no significant association between daily coffee consumption and CHD emerged from long-term follow-up prospective cohort studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-223
Number of pages15
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007

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Coffee
Coronary Disease
Meta-Analysis
Cohort Studies
Odds Ratio
Case-Control Studies
Drinking
Publications
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Caffeine
  • Coffee
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Meta-analysis
  • Myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease : A meta-analysis. / Sofi, Francesco; Conti, Andrea A.; Gori, Anna Maria; Eliana Luisi, Maria Luisa; Casini, Alessandro; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco.

In: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 17, No. 3, 03.2007, p. 209-223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sofi, Francesco ; Conti, Andrea A. ; Gori, Anna Maria ; Eliana Luisi, Maria Luisa ; Casini, Alessandro ; Abbate, Rosanna ; Gensini, Gian Franco. / Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease : A meta-analysis. In: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2007 ; Vol. 17, No. 3. pp. 209-223.
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abstract = "Background and aims: During the past three decades the relationship between habitual coffee drinking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been assessed in numerous studies, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the data published on the association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of CHD. Methods and results: Thirteen case-control and 10 cohort studies were included. Case-control studies incorporated 9487 cases of CHD and 27,747 controls, and cohort studies included a total of 403,631 participants that were followed for between 3 and 44 years. The summary of odds ratios (OR) for the case-control studies showed statistically significant associations between coffee consumption and CHD for the highest intake group (>4 cups/day), OR 1.83 (95{\%} CI 1.49-2.24; P <0.0001), and for the second highest category (3-4 cups/day), OR 1.33 (95{\%} CI 1.04-1.71; P <0.0001), while no significant association emerged for low daily coffee intake (≤2 cups/day), OR 1.03 (95{\%} CI 0.87-1.21; P = 0.45). The analysis of long-term follow-up cohort studies did not show any association between the consumption of coffee and CHD, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.16 (95{\%} CI 0.95-1.41; P = 0.14) for the highest category, and 1.05 (95{\%} CI 0.90-1.22; P = 0.57) and 1.04 (95{\%} CI 0.90-1.19; P = 0.60) for the second and third highest categories, respectively. These results did not differ substantially when controlling for region of origin, fatal and non-fatal events, year of publication, and number of years of follow-up. Conclusions: Despite a significant association between high consumption of coffee and CHD reported among case-control studies, no significant association between daily coffee consumption and CHD emerged from long-term follow-up prospective cohort studies.",
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T2 - A meta-analysis

AU - Sofi, Francesco

AU - Conti, Andrea A.

AU - Gori, Anna Maria

AU - Eliana Luisi, Maria Luisa

AU - Casini, Alessandro

AU - Abbate, Rosanna

AU - Gensini, Gian Franco

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N2 - Background and aims: During the past three decades the relationship between habitual coffee drinking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been assessed in numerous studies, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the data published on the association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of CHD. Methods and results: Thirteen case-control and 10 cohort studies were included. Case-control studies incorporated 9487 cases of CHD and 27,747 controls, and cohort studies included a total of 403,631 participants that were followed for between 3 and 44 years. The summary of odds ratios (OR) for the case-control studies showed statistically significant associations between coffee consumption and CHD for the highest intake group (>4 cups/day), OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.49-2.24; P <0.0001), and for the second highest category (3-4 cups/day), OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.04-1.71; P <0.0001), while no significant association emerged for low daily coffee intake (≤2 cups/day), OR 1.03 (95% CI 0.87-1.21; P = 0.45). The analysis of long-term follow-up cohort studies did not show any association between the consumption of coffee and CHD, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.95-1.41; P = 0.14) for the highest category, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.90-1.22; P = 0.57) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.90-1.19; P = 0.60) for the second and third highest categories, respectively. These results did not differ substantially when controlling for region of origin, fatal and non-fatal events, year of publication, and number of years of follow-up. Conclusions: Despite a significant association between high consumption of coffee and CHD reported among case-control studies, no significant association between daily coffee consumption and CHD emerged from long-term follow-up prospective cohort studies.

AB - Background and aims: During the past three decades the relationship between habitual coffee drinking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been assessed in numerous studies, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the data published on the association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of CHD. Methods and results: Thirteen case-control and 10 cohort studies were included. Case-control studies incorporated 9487 cases of CHD and 27,747 controls, and cohort studies included a total of 403,631 participants that were followed for between 3 and 44 years. The summary of odds ratios (OR) for the case-control studies showed statistically significant associations between coffee consumption and CHD for the highest intake group (>4 cups/day), OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.49-2.24; P <0.0001), and for the second highest category (3-4 cups/day), OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.04-1.71; P <0.0001), while no significant association emerged for low daily coffee intake (≤2 cups/day), OR 1.03 (95% CI 0.87-1.21; P = 0.45). The analysis of long-term follow-up cohort studies did not show any association between the consumption of coffee and CHD, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.95-1.41; P = 0.14) for the highest category, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.90-1.22; P = 0.57) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.90-1.19; P = 0.60) for the second and third highest categories, respectively. These results did not differ substantially when controlling for region of origin, fatal and non-fatal events, year of publication, and number of years of follow-up. Conclusions: Despite a significant association between high consumption of coffee and CHD reported among case-control studies, no significant association between daily coffee consumption and CHD emerged from long-term follow-up prospective cohort studies.

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KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Myocardial infarction

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