Coffee Intake and Liver Steatosis: A Population Study in a Mediterranean Area


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Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed to explore the potential association between coffee consumption and the presence and severity of hepatic steatosis in people with NAFLD or AFLD. In this cross-sectional study, coffee drinking was recorded using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and categorized as yes vs. no and as 0, 1, 2, ≥3. The degree of fatty liver was assessed through a standardized ultrasound examination (score 0 to 6, with higher values reflecting higher severity). Liver steatosis was classified as NAFLD or AFLD on daily alcohol intake >30 g/day for men and >20 g/day for women. This study included 2819 middle-aged participants; the great majority were coffee drinkers (86.1%). After adjusting for 12 potential confounders, drinking coffee was not associated with decreased odds for NAFLD (n = 916) (odds ratio, OR = 0.93; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.72-1.20) or AFLD (n = 276) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.66-2.0). The consumption of coffee (categorized as yes vs. no), or an increased consumption of coffee were not associated with the presence of mild, moderate or severe liver steatosis in either NAFLD or AFLD. In conclusion, coffee intake was not associated with any lower odds of hepatic steatosis in either non-alcoholic or alcoholic forms in this large cohort of South Italian individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2018


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Coffee/adverse effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Fatty Liver/diagnosis
  • Fatty Liver, Alcoholic/complications
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy/epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mediterranean Region/epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications
  • Prevalence
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Waist Circumference


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