Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analysis

Saverio Caini, Sofia Cattaruzza, Benedetta Bendinelli, Giulio Tosti, Giovanna Masala, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Melania Assedi, Ignazio Stanganelli, Domenico Palli, Sara Gandini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Laboratory studies suggested that caffeine and other nutrients contained in coffee and tea may protect against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, epidemiological studies conducted so far have produced conflicting results. Methods: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies published until February 2016 that investigated the association between coffee and tea intake and NMSC risk. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) by using random effects with maximum likelihood estimation.Results: Overall, 37,627 NMSC cases from 13 papers were available for analysis. Intake of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with NMSC risk (SRR for those in the highest vs. lowest category of intake: 0.82, 95 % CI 0.75–0.89, I2 = 48 %), as well as intake of caffeine (SRR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.80–0.91, I2 = 48 %). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to the basal cell cancer (BCC) histotype. There was no association between intake of decaffeinated coffee (SRR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.85–1.21, I2 = 0) and tea (0.88, 95 % CI 0.72–1.07, I2 = 0 %) and NMSC risk. There was no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. The available evidence was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the association between green tea intake and NMSC risk. Conclusions: Coffee intake appears to exert a moderate protective effect against BCC development, probably through the biological effect of caffeine. However, the observational nature of studies included, subject to bias and confounding, suggests taking with caution these results that should be verified in randomized clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jul 7 2016

Fingerprint

Coffee
Skin Neoplasms
Tea
Caffeine
Meta-Analysis
Confidence Intervals
Basal Cell Neoplasms
Observational Studies
Publication Bias
Epidemiologic Studies
Randomized Controlled Trials
Food

Keywords

  • Caffeine
  • Coffee
  • Meta-analysis
  • Non-melanoma skin cancer
  • Tea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer : a review of the literature and meta-analysis. / Caini, Saverio; Cattaruzza, Sofia; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Tosti, Giulio; Masala, Giovanna; Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Assedi, Melania; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Palli, Domenico; Gandini, Sara.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, 07.07.2016, p. 1-12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Caini, Saverio ; Cattaruzza, Sofia ; Bendinelli, Benedetta ; Tosti, Giulio ; Masala, Giovanna ; Gnagnarella, Patrizia ; Assedi, Melania ; Stanganelli, Ignazio ; Palli, Domenico ; Gandini, Sara. / Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer : a review of the literature and meta-analysis. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2016 ; pp. 1-12.
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abstract = "Purpose: Laboratory studies suggested that caffeine and other nutrients contained in coffee and tea may protect against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, epidemiological studies conducted so far have produced conflicting results. Methods: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies published until February 2016 that investigated the association between coffee and tea intake and NMSC risk. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95 {\%} confidence intervals (95 {\%} CI) by using random effects with maximum likelihood estimation.Results: Overall, 37,627 NMSC cases from 13 papers were available for analysis. Intake of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with NMSC risk (SRR for those in the highest vs. lowest category of intake: 0.82, 95 {\%} CI 0.75–0.89, I2 = 48 {\%}), as well as intake of caffeine (SRR 0.86, 95 {\%} CI 0.80–0.91, I2 = 48 {\%}). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to the basal cell cancer (BCC) histotype. There was no association between intake of decaffeinated coffee (SRR 1.01, 95 {\%} CI 0.85–1.21, I2 = 0) and tea (0.88, 95 {\%} CI 0.72–1.07, I2 = 0 {\%}) and NMSC risk. There was no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. The available evidence was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the association between green tea intake and NMSC risk. Conclusions: Coffee intake appears to exert a moderate protective effect against BCC development, probably through the biological effect of caffeine. However, the observational nature of studies included, subject to bias and confounding, suggests taking with caution these results that should be verified in randomized clinical trials.",
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AU - Caini, Saverio

AU - Cattaruzza, Sofia

AU - Bendinelli, Benedetta

AU - Tosti, Giulio

AU - Masala, Giovanna

AU - Gnagnarella, Patrizia

AU - Assedi, Melania

AU - Stanganelli, Ignazio

AU - Palli, Domenico

AU - Gandini, Sara

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N2 - Purpose: Laboratory studies suggested that caffeine and other nutrients contained in coffee and tea may protect against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, epidemiological studies conducted so far have produced conflicting results. Methods: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies published until February 2016 that investigated the association between coffee and tea intake and NMSC risk. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) by using random effects with maximum likelihood estimation.Results: Overall, 37,627 NMSC cases from 13 papers were available for analysis. Intake of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with NMSC risk (SRR for those in the highest vs. lowest category of intake: 0.82, 95 % CI 0.75–0.89, I2 = 48 %), as well as intake of caffeine (SRR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.80–0.91, I2 = 48 %). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to the basal cell cancer (BCC) histotype. There was no association between intake of decaffeinated coffee (SRR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.85–1.21, I2 = 0) and tea (0.88, 95 % CI 0.72–1.07, I2 = 0 %) and NMSC risk. There was no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. The available evidence was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the association between green tea intake and NMSC risk. Conclusions: Coffee intake appears to exert a moderate protective effect against BCC development, probably through the biological effect of caffeine. However, the observational nature of studies included, subject to bias and confounding, suggests taking with caution these results that should be verified in randomized clinical trials.

AB - Purpose: Laboratory studies suggested that caffeine and other nutrients contained in coffee and tea may protect against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, epidemiological studies conducted so far have produced conflicting results. Methods: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies published until February 2016 that investigated the association between coffee and tea intake and NMSC risk. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) by using random effects with maximum likelihood estimation.Results: Overall, 37,627 NMSC cases from 13 papers were available for analysis. Intake of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with NMSC risk (SRR for those in the highest vs. lowest category of intake: 0.82, 95 % CI 0.75–0.89, I2 = 48 %), as well as intake of caffeine (SRR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.80–0.91, I2 = 48 %). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to the basal cell cancer (BCC) histotype. There was no association between intake of decaffeinated coffee (SRR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.85–1.21, I2 = 0) and tea (0.88, 95 % CI 0.72–1.07, I2 = 0 %) and NMSC risk. There was no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. The available evidence was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the association between green tea intake and NMSC risk. Conclusions: Coffee intake appears to exert a moderate protective effect against BCC development, probably through the biological effect of caffeine. However, the observational nature of studies included, subject to bias and confounding, suggests taking with caution these results that should be verified in randomized clinical trials.

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