Abstract

Background and purpose: Rehabilitation plays a central role in stroke recovery. Besides conventional therapy, technological treatments have become available. The effectiveness and appropriateness of technological rehabilitation are not yet well defined; hence, research focused on different variables impacting recovery is needed. Results from the literature identified cognitive reserve (CR) as a variable impacting on the cognitive outcome. In this paper, the aim was to evaluate whether CR influences the motor outcome in patients after stroke treated with conventional or robotic therapy and whether it may influence one treatment rather than another. Methods: Seventy-five stroke patients were enrolled in five Italian neurological rehabilitation centres. Patients were assigned either to a robotic group, rehabilitation by means of robotic devices, or to a conventional group, where a traditional approach was used. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after rehabilitation treatment of 6 weeks through the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), the Motricity Index (MI) and the Barthel Index (BI). CR was assessed at baseline using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire. Results: Considering all patients, a weak correlation was found between the CRI related to leisure time and MI evolution (r = 0.276; P = 0.02). Amongst the patients who performed a robotic rehabilitation, a moderate correlation emerged between the CRI related to working activities and MI evolution (r = 0.422; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our results suggest that CR may influence the motor outcome. For each patient, CR and its subcategories should be considered in the choice between conventional and robotic treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Neurology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Cognitive Reserve
Robotics
Upper Extremity
Multicenter Studies
Rehabilitation
Stroke
Therapeutics
Rehabilitation Centers
Health Services Research
Leisure Activities
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Cognitive Reserve Index
  • personalized medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • robotics
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

@article{dcbc588fd01e4c9fbea6c929b4cb4e06,
title = "Cognitive reserve as a useful variable to address robotic or conventional upper limb rehabilitation treatment after stroke: a multicentre study of the Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi",
abstract = "Background and purpose: Rehabilitation plays a central role in stroke recovery. Besides conventional therapy, technological treatments have become available. The effectiveness and appropriateness of technological rehabilitation are not yet well defined; hence, research focused on different variables impacting recovery is needed. Results from the literature identified cognitive reserve (CR) as a variable impacting on the cognitive outcome. In this paper, the aim was to evaluate whether CR influences the motor outcome in patients after stroke treated with conventional or robotic therapy and whether it may influence one treatment rather than another. Methods: Seventy-five stroke patients were enrolled in five Italian neurological rehabilitation centres. Patients were assigned either to a robotic group, rehabilitation by means of robotic devices, or to a conventional group, where a traditional approach was used. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after rehabilitation treatment of 6 weeks through the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), the Motricity Index (MI) and the Barthel Index (BI). CR was assessed at baseline using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire. Results: Considering all patients, a weak correlation was found between the CRI related to leisure time and MI evolution (r = 0.276; P = 0.02). Amongst the patients who performed a robotic rehabilitation, a moderate correlation emerged between the CRI related to working activities and MI evolution (r = 0.422; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our results suggest that CR may influence the motor outcome. For each patient, CR and its subcategories should be considered in the choice between conventional and robotic treatment.",
keywords = "Cognitive Reserve Index, personalized medicine, rehabilitation, robotics, stroke",
author = "{The FDG Robotic Rehabilitation Group} and L. Padua and I. Imbimbo and I. Aprile and C. Loreti and M. Germanotta and D. Coraci and G. Piccinini and C. Pazzaglia and C. Santilli and A. Cruciani and Carrozza, {M. C.} and C. Pecchioli and S. Loreti and S. Lattanzi and L. Cortellini and D. Papadopoulou and G. Liberti and F. Panzera and P. Mitrione and D. Ruzzi and G. Rinaldi and S. Insalaco and {De Santis}, F. and P. Spinelli and S. Marsan and I. Bastoni and A. Pellegrino and T. Petitti and A. Montesano and A. Castagna and C. Grosso and P. Ammenti and D. Cattaneo and M. Zocchi and L. Negri and F. Gramatica and V. Gower and F. Noro and S. Negrini and E. Giannini and S. Callegari and A. Pizzi and C. Falsini and {De Luca}, G. and F. Vannetti and M. Martini and E. Peccini and F. Cecchi and E. Bertocchi and P. Rossi",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/ene.14090",
language = "English",
journal = "European Journal of Neurology",
issn = "1351-5101",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cognitive reserve as a useful variable to address robotic or conventional upper limb rehabilitation treatment after stroke

T2 - a multicentre study of the Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi

AU - The FDG Robotic Rehabilitation Group

AU - Padua, L.

AU - Imbimbo, I.

AU - Aprile, I.

AU - Loreti, C.

AU - Germanotta, M.

AU - Coraci, D.

AU - Piccinini, G.

AU - Pazzaglia, C.

AU - Santilli, C.

AU - Cruciani, A.

AU - Carrozza, M. C.

AU - Pecchioli, C.

AU - Loreti, S.

AU - Lattanzi, S.

AU - Cortellini, L.

AU - Papadopoulou, D.

AU - Liberti, G.

AU - Panzera, F.

AU - Mitrione, P.

AU - Ruzzi, D.

AU - Rinaldi, G.

AU - Insalaco, S.

AU - De Santis, F.

AU - Spinelli, P.

AU - Marsan, S.

AU - Bastoni, I.

AU - Pellegrino, A.

AU - Petitti, T.

AU - Montesano, A.

AU - Castagna, A.

AU - Grosso, C.

AU - Ammenti, P.

AU - Cattaneo, D.

AU - Zocchi, M.

AU - Negri, L.

AU - Gramatica, F.

AU - Gower, V.

AU - Noro, F.

AU - Negrini, S.

AU - Giannini, E.

AU - Callegari, S.

AU - Pizzi, A.

AU - Falsini, C.

AU - De Luca, G.

AU - Vannetti, F.

AU - Martini, M.

AU - Peccini, E.

AU - Cecchi, F.

AU - Bertocchi, E.

AU - Rossi, P.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background and purpose: Rehabilitation plays a central role in stroke recovery. Besides conventional therapy, technological treatments have become available. The effectiveness and appropriateness of technological rehabilitation are not yet well defined; hence, research focused on different variables impacting recovery is needed. Results from the literature identified cognitive reserve (CR) as a variable impacting on the cognitive outcome. In this paper, the aim was to evaluate whether CR influences the motor outcome in patients after stroke treated with conventional or robotic therapy and whether it may influence one treatment rather than another. Methods: Seventy-five stroke patients were enrolled in five Italian neurological rehabilitation centres. Patients were assigned either to a robotic group, rehabilitation by means of robotic devices, or to a conventional group, where a traditional approach was used. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after rehabilitation treatment of 6 weeks through the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), the Motricity Index (MI) and the Barthel Index (BI). CR was assessed at baseline using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire. Results: Considering all patients, a weak correlation was found between the CRI related to leisure time and MI evolution (r = 0.276; P = 0.02). Amongst the patients who performed a robotic rehabilitation, a moderate correlation emerged between the CRI related to working activities and MI evolution (r = 0.422; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our results suggest that CR may influence the motor outcome. For each patient, CR and its subcategories should be considered in the choice between conventional and robotic treatment.

AB - Background and purpose: Rehabilitation plays a central role in stroke recovery. Besides conventional therapy, technological treatments have become available. The effectiveness and appropriateness of technological rehabilitation are not yet well defined; hence, research focused on different variables impacting recovery is needed. Results from the literature identified cognitive reserve (CR) as a variable impacting on the cognitive outcome. In this paper, the aim was to evaluate whether CR influences the motor outcome in patients after stroke treated with conventional or robotic therapy and whether it may influence one treatment rather than another. Methods: Seventy-five stroke patients were enrolled in five Italian neurological rehabilitation centres. Patients were assigned either to a robotic group, rehabilitation by means of robotic devices, or to a conventional group, where a traditional approach was used. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after rehabilitation treatment of 6 weeks through the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), the Motricity Index (MI) and the Barthel Index (BI). CR was assessed at baseline using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI) questionnaire. Results: Considering all patients, a weak correlation was found between the CRI related to leisure time and MI evolution (r = 0.276; P = 0.02). Amongst the patients who performed a robotic rehabilitation, a moderate correlation emerged between the CRI related to working activities and MI evolution (r = 0.422; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our results suggest that CR may influence the motor outcome. For each patient, CR and its subcategories should be considered in the choice between conventional and robotic treatment.

KW - Cognitive Reserve Index

KW - personalized medicine

KW - rehabilitation

KW - robotics

KW - stroke

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074270836&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85074270836&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/ene.14090

DO - 10.1111/ene.14090

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85074270836

JO - European Journal of Neurology

JF - European Journal of Neurology

SN - 1351-5101

ER -