Over the past century, technologic advances have promoted the evolution of radiation therapy into a precise treatment modality allowing for the maximal administration of dose to tumors while sparing normal tissues. In parallel with this technological maturation, the rapid expansion in understanding the basic biology and heterogeneity of cancer has led to the development of several compounds that target specific pathways. Many of them are in advanced steps of clinical development for combination treatments with radiotherapy, and can be incorporated into radiation oncology practice for a personalized approach to maximize the therapeutic gain. This review describes the rationale for combining novel agents with radiation, and provides an overview of the current landscape focused on treatment efficacy.
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