Combination radium-223 therapies in patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer: A review

M C Cursano, M Iuliani, C Casadei, M Stellato, G Tonini, G Paganelli, D Santini, U De Giorgi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), hormonal therapies (abiraterone, enzalutamide) and radium-223 improve survival in patients with bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Combinations of radium-223 with these agents or novel drugs have been investigated in order to improve survival and decrease bone-related morbidity. In mCRPC, clinical and preclinical data indicate that radium-223, abiraterone and enzalutamide have a direct effect on prostate cancer cells and bone microenvironment when administered as single agents. Initial results from studies of radium-223 and abiraterone, enzalutamide or docetaxel demonstrated efficacy without any safety concern in pre-treated mCRPC; however, this safety profile changed when radium-based combination therapies were administered in un-pretreated mCRPC. This review underline the biological rationale for combining radium strategies, investigating their effects on bone in terms of control of skeletal-related events and bone disease progression. The aim is to understand the possible reasons why different radium-based combination treatments can led to different clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102864
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Androstenes/therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use
  • Bone Neoplasms/pathology
  • Docetaxel/therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Orchiectomy
  • Phenylthiohydantoin/analogs & derivatives
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology
  • Radioisotopes/therapeutic use
  • Radiopharmaceuticals/administration & dosage
  • Radium/therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Microenvironment


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