Combination therapy reverses hyperglycemia in NOD mice with established type 1 diabetes

Song Xue, Amanda Posgai, Clive Wasserfall, Courtney Myhr, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Clayton E. Mathews, Todd Brusko, Alex Rabinovitch, Alexei Savinov, Manuela Battaglia, Desmond Schatz, Michael Haller, Mark A. Atkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An increasing number of therapies have proven effective at reversing hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet situations of successful translation to human T1D are limited. This may be partly due to evaluating the effect of treating immediately at diagnosis in mice, which may not be reflective of the advanced disease state in humans at disease onset. In this study, we treated NOD mice with new-onset as well as established disease using various combinations of four drugs: antithymocyte globulin (ATG), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-4i), and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Therapy with all four drugs induced remission in 83% of new-onset mice and, remarkably, in 50% of NOD mice with established disease. Also noteworthy, disease remission occurred irrespective of initial blood glucose values and mechanistically was characterized by enhanced immunoregulation involving alterations in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer cells. This combination therapy also allowed for effective treatment at reduced drug doses (compared with effective monotherapy), thereby minimizing potential adverse effects while retaining efficacy. This combination of approved drugs demonstrates a novel ability to reverse T1D, thereby warranting translational consideration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3873-3884
Number of pages12
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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