Combined kidney and vascularized total bladder transplantation: Experience in an animal model

G. Torino, N. Capozza, F. Diomedi Camassei, L. Dello Strologo, E. Mele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Few reports have described a partial bladder graft with an en bloc kidney transplantation, mainly to facilitate reconstruction of the urinary tract, but also to augment the native bladder. The present study assessed the feasibility to graft vascularized total bladder in association with a renal transplantation. Methods The right kidney, in continuity with the ureter and the entire bladder, was retrieved from three female pigs weighing 20 g. The visceral bloc was transplanted to three recipient pigs of the same weight. The entire bladder was transplanted with its vascular connection to ensure a better blood supply. After 3 days of observation, one recipient was humanely killed to examine the bladder graft. Oxygen saturation in the bladder graft monitored for 8 hours was compared with the native bladder in the other two recipients. All three bladder grafts were examined by a pathologist. Results All bladder grafts seemed to be macroscopically well-perfused upon removal of the vascular clamps. In case 1, the recipient was clinically well with good urinary output over the first 2 days of observation; is contrast, on day 3 the animal displayed an acute reduced urinary output. Laparotomy on day 3 of observation showed recent thrombosis of the bladder and renal graft vessels. In cases 2 and 3, oxygen saturations of the bladder graft were normal during the 8-hour observation period, without any difference between the graft and the native bladder. Conclusions According to our results, vascularized total bladder transplantation is feasible. In combination with renal transplantation, it could be applied as an alternative to bladder augmentation or total bladder replacement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2765-2768
Number of pages4
JournalTransplantation Proceedings
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Transplantation


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