Comparative analysis of drug resistance among B and the most prevalent non-B HIV type 1 subtypes (C, F, and CRF02-AG) in Italy

Maria Mercedes Santoro, Claudia Alteri, Luigi Ronga, Philippe Flandre, Lavinia Fabeni, Fabio Mercurio, Roberta D'Arrigo, Caterina Gori, Guido Palamara, Ada Bertoli, Federica Forbici, Romina Salpini, Evangelo Boumis, Valerio Tozzi, Ubaldo Visco-Comandini, Mauro Zaccarelli, Margriet Van Houtte, Theresa Pattery, Pasquale Narciso, Andrea AntinoriFrancesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo Federico Perno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In recent years, increasing numbers of patients infected with HIV-1 non-B subtypes have been treated with modern antiretroviral regimens. Therefore, a better knowledge of HIV drug resistance in non-B strains is crucial. Thus, we compared the mutational pathways involved in drug resistance among the most common non-B subtypes in Italy (F, C, and CRF02-AG) and the B subtype. In total, 2234 pol sequences from 1231 virologically failing patients from Central Italy were analyzed. The prevalence of resistance mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase between non-B and B subtypes has been evaluated. Among patients treated with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and with thymidine analogues (TA) experience, TAMs1 M41L and L210W were less prevalent in CRF02-AG, while TAMs2 T215F and K219E were more prevalent in the F subtype. In NRTI-treated patients having experience with abacavir, didanosine, tenofovir, or stavudine the K65R mutation was mostly prevalent in the C subtype. In non-NRTI (NNRTI)-treated patients infected by the C subtype the prevalence of K103N was lower than in patients infected with other subtypes, while the prevalence of Y181C and Y188L was higher compared to subtype B. The prevalence of Y181C was higher also in subtype F as compared to subtype B. In patients treated with protease inhibitors, L89V was predominantly found in CRF02-AG, while the TPV resistance mutation T74P was predominantly found in the C subtype. Some differences in the genotypic drug resistance have been found among patients infected with B, C, F, and CRF02-AG subtypes in relationship to treatment. These results may be useful for the therapeutic management of individuals infected with HIV-1 non-B strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1285-1293
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume28
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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    Santoro, M. M., Alteri, C., Ronga, L., Flandre, P., Fabeni, L., Mercurio, F., D'Arrigo, R., Gori, C., Palamara, G., Bertoli, A., Forbici, F., Salpini, R., Boumis, E., Tozzi, V., Visco-Comandini, U., Zaccarelli, M., Van Houtte, M., Pattery, T., Narciso, P., ... Perno, C. F. (2012). Comparative analysis of drug resistance among B and the most prevalent non-B HIV type 1 subtypes (C, F, and CRF02-AG) in Italy. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 28(10), 1285-1293. https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.2011.0142