Comparative risk of major congenital malformations with eight different antiepileptic drugs: a prospective cohort study of the EURAP registry

EURAP Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Evidence for the comparative teratogenic risk of antiepileptic drugs is insufficient, particularly in relation to the dosage used. Therefore, we aimed to compare the occurrence of major congenital malformations following prenatal exposure to the eight most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in monotherapy. Methods: We did a longitudinal, prospective cohort study based on the EURAP international registry. We included data from pregnancies in women who were exposed to antiepileptic drug monotherapy at conception, prospectively identified from 42 countries contributing to EURAP. Follow-up data were obtained after each trimester, at birth, and 1 year after birth. The primary objective was to compare the risk of major congenital malformations assessed at 1 year after birth in offspring exposed prenatally to one of eight commonly used antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate) and, whenever a dose dependency was identified, to compare the risks at different dose ranges. Logistic regression was used to make direct comparisons between treatments after adjustment for potential confounders and prognostic factors. Findings: Between June 20, 1999, and May 20, 2016, 7555 prospective pregnancies met the eligibility criteria. Of those eligible, 7355 pregnancies were exposed to one of the eight antiepileptic drugs for which the prevalence of major congenital malformations was 142 (10·3%) of 1381 pregnancies for valproate, 19 (6·5%) of 294 for phenobarbital, eight (6·4%) of 125 for phenytoin, 107 (5·5%) of 1957 for carbamazepine, six (3·9%) of 152 for topiramate, ten (3·0%) of 333 for oxcarbazepine, 74 (2·9%) of 2514 for lamotrigine, and 17 (2·8%) of 599 for levetiracetam. The prevalence of major congenital malformations increased with the dose at time of conception for carbamazepine (p=0·0140), lamotrigine (p=0·0145), phenobarbital (p=0·0390), and valproate (p<0·0001). After adjustment, multivariable analysis showed that the prevalence of major congenital malformations was significantly higher for all doses of carbamazepine and valproate as well as for phenobarbital at doses of more than 80 mg/day than for lamotrigine at doses of 325 mg/day or less. Valproate at doses of 650 mg/day or less was also associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (odds ratio [OR] 2·43, 95% CI 1·30–4·55; p=0·0069). Carbamazepine at doses of more than 700 mg/day was associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (OR 2·41, 95% CI 1·33–4·38; p=0·0055) and oxcarbazepine at doses of 75–4500 mg/day (2·37, 1·17–4·80; p=0·0169). Interpretation: Different antiepileptic drugs and dosages have different teratogenic risks. Risks of major congenital malformation associated with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine were within the range reported in the literature for offspring unexposed to antiepileptic drugs. These findings facilitate rational selection of these drugs, taking into account comparative risks associated with treatment alternatives. Data for topiramate and phenytoin should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of exposures in this study. Funding: Bial, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, the Netherlands Epilepsy Foundation, and Stockholm County Council.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)530-538
Number of pages9
JournalThe Lancet Neurology
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2018

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etiracetam
Anticonvulsants
Registries
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Carbamazepine
Valproic Acid
Phenobarbital
Phenytoin
Pregnancy
Parturition
Odds Ratio
Netherlands
Epilepsy
Logistic Models
lamotrigine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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Comparative risk of major congenital malformations with eight different antiepileptic drugs : a prospective cohort study of the EURAP registry. / EURAP Study Group.

In: The Lancet Neurology, Vol. 17, No. 6, 01.06.2018, p. 530-538.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Comparative risk of major congenital malformations with eight different antiepileptic drugs: a prospective cohort study of the EURAP registry",
abstract = "Background: Evidence for the comparative teratogenic risk of antiepileptic drugs is insufficient, particularly in relation to the dosage used. Therefore, we aimed to compare the occurrence of major congenital malformations following prenatal exposure to the eight most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in monotherapy. Methods: We did a longitudinal, prospective cohort study based on the EURAP international registry. We included data from pregnancies in women who were exposed to antiepileptic drug monotherapy at conception, prospectively identified from 42 countries contributing to EURAP. Follow-up data were obtained after each trimester, at birth, and 1 year after birth. The primary objective was to compare the risk of major congenital malformations assessed at 1 year after birth in offspring exposed prenatally to one of eight commonly used antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate) and, whenever a dose dependency was identified, to compare the risks at different dose ranges. Logistic regression was used to make direct comparisons between treatments after adjustment for potential confounders and prognostic factors. Findings: Between June 20, 1999, and May 20, 2016, 7555 prospective pregnancies met the eligibility criteria. Of those eligible, 7355 pregnancies were exposed to one of the eight antiepileptic drugs for which the prevalence of major congenital malformations was 142 (10·3{\%}) of 1381 pregnancies for valproate, 19 (6·5{\%}) of 294 for phenobarbital, eight (6·4{\%}) of 125 for phenytoin, 107 (5·5{\%}) of 1957 for carbamazepine, six (3·9{\%}) of 152 for topiramate, ten (3·0{\%}) of 333 for oxcarbazepine, 74 (2·9{\%}) of 2514 for lamotrigine, and 17 (2·8{\%}) of 599 for levetiracetam. The prevalence of major congenital malformations increased with the dose at time of conception for carbamazepine (p=0·0140), lamotrigine (p=0·0145), phenobarbital (p=0·0390), and valproate (p<0·0001). After adjustment, multivariable analysis showed that the prevalence of major congenital malformations was significantly higher for all doses of carbamazepine and valproate as well as for phenobarbital at doses of more than 80 mg/day than for lamotrigine at doses of 325 mg/day or less. Valproate at doses of 650 mg/day or less was also associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (odds ratio [OR] 2·43, 95{\%} CI 1·30–4·55; p=0·0069). Carbamazepine at doses of more than 700 mg/day was associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (OR 2·41, 95{\%} CI 1·33–4·38; p=0·0055) and oxcarbazepine at doses of 75–4500 mg/day (2·37, 1·17–4·80; p=0·0169). Interpretation: Different antiepileptic drugs and dosages have different teratogenic risks. Risks of major congenital malformation associated with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine were within the range reported in the literature for offspring unexposed to antiepileptic drugs. These findings facilitate rational selection of these drugs, taking into account comparative risks associated with treatment alternatives. Data for topiramate and phenytoin should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of exposures in this study. Funding: Bial, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, the Netherlands Epilepsy Foundation, and Stockholm County Council.",
author = "{EURAP Study Group} and Torbj{\"o}rn Tomson and Dina Battino and Erminio Bonizzoni and John Craig and Dick Lindhout and Emilio Perucca and Anne Sabers and Thomas, {Sanjeev V.} and Frank Vajda and Francesca Faravelli and Chiara Pantaleoni and Elisabeth Robert-Gnansia and Leonor Cabral-Lim and Boštjan Čebular and {De Marinis}, Alejandro and Reetta K{\"a}lvi{\"a}inen and Ketevan Khomeriki and Gordana Kiteva-Trencevska and Silvia Kochen and Martin Kurthen and Gerhard Luef and {Martinez Ferri}, Meritxell and Maja Milovanović and Nakken, {Karl Otto} and Miri Neufeld and Hideyuki Ohtani and Aline Russell and Vladim{\'i}r Safc{\'a}k and Bettina Schmitz and Specchio, {Luigi Maria} and Barbara Tettenborn and {van Puijenbroek}, Eugene and Yu, {Hsiang Yu} and Jana Zarubova and Claus Albretsen and Silje Alvestad and Andersen, {Noemi Becser} and Luisa Antonini and Jens Arentsen and Dag Aurlien and Ismael Barzinji and {Becerra Cu{\~n}at}, {Juan Luis} and {Bohorquez Morera}, Natalia and Brodie, {Martin J.} and Eylert Brodtkorb and Laura Broglio and {Bruun Christensen}, Elsebeth and Petr Bušek and Barbara Mostacci and Marina Trivisano",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparative risk of major congenital malformations with eight different antiepileptic drugs

T2 - a prospective cohort study of the EURAP registry

AU - EURAP Study Group

AU - Tomson, Torbjörn

AU - Battino, Dina

AU - Bonizzoni, Erminio

AU - Craig, John

AU - Lindhout, Dick

AU - Perucca, Emilio

AU - Sabers, Anne

AU - Thomas, Sanjeev V.

AU - Vajda, Frank

AU - Faravelli, Francesca

AU - Pantaleoni, Chiara

AU - Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth

AU - Cabral-Lim, Leonor

AU - Čebular, Boštjan

AU - De Marinis, Alejandro

AU - Kälviäinen, Reetta

AU - Khomeriki, Ketevan

AU - Kiteva-Trencevska, Gordana

AU - Kochen, Silvia

AU - Kurthen, Martin

AU - Luef, Gerhard

AU - Martinez Ferri, Meritxell

AU - Milovanović, Maja

AU - Nakken, Karl Otto

AU - Neufeld, Miri

AU - Ohtani, Hideyuki

AU - Russell, Aline

AU - Safcák, Vladimír

AU - Schmitz, Bettina

AU - Specchio, Luigi Maria

AU - Tettenborn, Barbara

AU - van Puijenbroek, Eugene

AU - Yu, Hsiang Yu

AU - Zarubova, Jana

AU - Albretsen, Claus

AU - Alvestad, Silje

AU - Andersen, Noemi Becser

AU - Antonini, Luisa

AU - Arentsen, Jens

AU - Aurlien, Dag

AU - Barzinji, Ismael

AU - Becerra Cuñat, Juan Luis

AU - Bohorquez Morera, Natalia

AU - Brodie, Martin J.

AU - Brodtkorb, Eylert

AU - Broglio, Laura

AU - Bruun Christensen, Elsebeth

AU - Bušek, Petr

AU - Mostacci, Barbara

AU - Trivisano, Marina

PY - 2018/6/1

Y1 - 2018/6/1

N2 - Background: Evidence for the comparative teratogenic risk of antiepileptic drugs is insufficient, particularly in relation to the dosage used. Therefore, we aimed to compare the occurrence of major congenital malformations following prenatal exposure to the eight most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in monotherapy. Methods: We did a longitudinal, prospective cohort study based on the EURAP international registry. We included data from pregnancies in women who were exposed to antiepileptic drug monotherapy at conception, prospectively identified from 42 countries contributing to EURAP. Follow-up data were obtained after each trimester, at birth, and 1 year after birth. The primary objective was to compare the risk of major congenital malformations assessed at 1 year after birth in offspring exposed prenatally to one of eight commonly used antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate) and, whenever a dose dependency was identified, to compare the risks at different dose ranges. Logistic regression was used to make direct comparisons between treatments after adjustment for potential confounders and prognostic factors. Findings: Between June 20, 1999, and May 20, 2016, 7555 prospective pregnancies met the eligibility criteria. Of those eligible, 7355 pregnancies were exposed to one of the eight antiepileptic drugs for which the prevalence of major congenital malformations was 142 (10·3%) of 1381 pregnancies for valproate, 19 (6·5%) of 294 for phenobarbital, eight (6·4%) of 125 for phenytoin, 107 (5·5%) of 1957 for carbamazepine, six (3·9%) of 152 for topiramate, ten (3·0%) of 333 for oxcarbazepine, 74 (2·9%) of 2514 for lamotrigine, and 17 (2·8%) of 599 for levetiracetam. The prevalence of major congenital malformations increased with the dose at time of conception for carbamazepine (p=0·0140), lamotrigine (p=0·0145), phenobarbital (p=0·0390), and valproate (p<0·0001). After adjustment, multivariable analysis showed that the prevalence of major congenital malformations was significantly higher for all doses of carbamazepine and valproate as well as for phenobarbital at doses of more than 80 mg/day than for lamotrigine at doses of 325 mg/day or less. Valproate at doses of 650 mg/day or less was also associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (odds ratio [OR] 2·43, 95% CI 1·30–4·55; p=0·0069). Carbamazepine at doses of more than 700 mg/day was associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (OR 2·41, 95% CI 1·33–4·38; p=0·0055) and oxcarbazepine at doses of 75–4500 mg/day (2·37, 1·17–4·80; p=0·0169). Interpretation: Different antiepileptic drugs and dosages have different teratogenic risks. Risks of major congenital malformation associated with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine were within the range reported in the literature for offspring unexposed to antiepileptic drugs. These findings facilitate rational selection of these drugs, taking into account comparative risks associated with treatment alternatives. Data for topiramate and phenytoin should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of exposures in this study. Funding: Bial, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, the Netherlands Epilepsy Foundation, and Stockholm County Council.

AB - Background: Evidence for the comparative teratogenic risk of antiepileptic drugs is insufficient, particularly in relation to the dosage used. Therefore, we aimed to compare the occurrence of major congenital malformations following prenatal exposure to the eight most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in monotherapy. Methods: We did a longitudinal, prospective cohort study based on the EURAP international registry. We included data from pregnancies in women who were exposed to antiepileptic drug monotherapy at conception, prospectively identified from 42 countries contributing to EURAP. Follow-up data were obtained after each trimester, at birth, and 1 year after birth. The primary objective was to compare the risk of major congenital malformations assessed at 1 year after birth in offspring exposed prenatally to one of eight commonly used antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate) and, whenever a dose dependency was identified, to compare the risks at different dose ranges. Logistic regression was used to make direct comparisons between treatments after adjustment for potential confounders and prognostic factors. Findings: Between June 20, 1999, and May 20, 2016, 7555 prospective pregnancies met the eligibility criteria. Of those eligible, 7355 pregnancies were exposed to one of the eight antiepileptic drugs for which the prevalence of major congenital malformations was 142 (10·3%) of 1381 pregnancies for valproate, 19 (6·5%) of 294 for phenobarbital, eight (6·4%) of 125 for phenytoin, 107 (5·5%) of 1957 for carbamazepine, six (3·9%) of 152 for topiramate, ten (3·0%) of 333 for oxcarbazepine, 74 (2·9%) of 2514 for lamotrigine, and 17 (2·8%) of 599 for levetiracetam. The prevalence of major congenital malformations increased with the dose at time of conception for carbamazepine (p=0·0140), lamotrigine (p=0·0145), phenobarbital (p=0·0390), and valproate (p<0·0001). After adjustment, multivariable analysis showed that the prevalence of major congenital malformations was significantly higher for all doses of carbamazepine and valproate as well as for phenobarbital at doses of more than 80 mg/day than for lamotrigine at doses of 325 mg/day or less. Valproate at doses of 650 mg/day or less was also associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (odds ratio [OR] 2·43, 95% CI 1·30–4·55; p=0·0069). Carbamazepine at doses of more than 700 mg/day was associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with levetiracetam at doses of 250–4000 mg/day (OR 2·41, 95% CI 1·33–4·38; p=0·0055) and oxcarbazepine at doses of 75–4500 mg/day (2·37, 1·17–4·80; p=0·0169). Interpretation: Different antiepileptic drugs and dosages have different teratogenic risks. Risks of major congenital malformation associated with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine were within the range reported in the literature for offspring unexposed to antiepileptic drugs. These findings facilitate rational selection of these drugs, taking into account comparative risks associated with treatment alternatives. Data for topiramate and phenytoin should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of exposures in this study. Funding: Bial, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, the Netherlands Epilepsy Foundation, and Stockholm County Council.

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