We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2) would be abnormal in diabetes and in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We measured MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1, -2 plasma levels in healthy subjects (controls), in type 2 diabetic patients, in nondiabetic patients with ACS (ACS) and in diabetic patients with ACS (DACS). We enrolled 165 controls, 181 diabetic patients, 78 ACS, and 46 DACS. We measured also BMI (body mass index), HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) FPG (fasting plasma glucosa), FPI (fasting plasma insulin), HOMA index (homeostasis model assessment index), SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), TC (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), Tg (triglycerides), Lp(a) (lipoprotein(a)) PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), Hct (homocysteine), Fg (fibrinogen), and hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). A significant increase of BMI was observed in the diabetic group, in ACS and DACS patients compared to controls. A significant increase of SBP and DBP resulted in the diabetic and DACS groups, while only SBP improvement was present in ACS patients with respect to controls. A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed in the ACS group, while SBP variation was present in DACS patients compared to diabetics, and DBP increase was obtained in the DACS group with respect to ACS patients. TC, LDL-C, Tg, and Lp(a) increase was present in diabetics, while TC, Tg, and Lp(a) improvement was present in ACS and DACS patients with a significant decrease of HDL-C levels in diabetic, ACS, and DACS groups compared to controls. A decrease in LDL-C was obtained in ACS and DACS groups, while HDL-C increase was observed in these patients with respect to diabetics. Tg levels were higher in the DACS group compared to diabetics and ACS patients, respectively. Increases in PAI-1, Hct, Fg, and hs-CRP were present in diabetic and DACS groups, while PAI-1, Hct, and hs-CRP improvement was obtained in ACS patients with respect to controls. Higher PAI-1 levels came about in ACS and DACS groups, while HCT and Fg levels were lower in ACS patients compared to diabetics. An increase in Fg was present in the DACS group with respect to ACS patients. A decrease in Hs-CRP was observed in DACS patients compared to diabetics and the ACS group, respectively. Higher MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels were present in diabetic, ACS, and DACS patients compared to controls. Significant MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 increases were observed in ACS and DACS groups, while MMP-9 decreased in these patients compared to diabetics. In conclusion, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 plasma levels were higher in diabetic, ACS, and DACS patients, which may reflect abnormal extracellular matrix metabolism in diabetes and in acute coronary syndrome.
- Acute coronary syndrome
- Diabetes mellitus
- Extracellular matrix
- Matrix metalloproteinase
- Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine